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Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride and Xiaoxia Su

Purpose:

Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.

Methods:

Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.

Results:

Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.

Discussion/Conclusion:

The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.

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Barbara Tyree Smith and Grace Goc Karp

This qualitative study explored how students adapt to marginalization in a seventh-grade middle school physical education class in the Pacific North-west. The study’s focus included how marginalized students were excluded within the class and how students, identified as marginalized, adapted to exclusion or temporary acceptance. Marginalized students were those who were unable to be accepted into or remain in a group for a period of time (approximately one week). Data were collected through 60 field observations, over a 14-week time period. Informal and formal interviews were conducted with teachers and students. Three boys and 2 girls were identified as marginalized within the physical education class. Formation of groups and strategies used to exclude marginalized students were found to greatly influence how students became initially marginalized. Once marginalized, students rarely changed their status, although a few were able to use strategies that reduced their status temporarily.

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Judith L. Oslin

This investigation examined the role of routines and activity structures as organizing features in middle school physical education. Six physical education specialists from one suburban middle school were observed during their first four lessons at the beginning of the year and during an additional lesson at midyear. Analysis revealed that routines and activity structures were well established by Day 4 and remained through midyear. Three categories of routines emerged: management, instructional support, and instructional exchange. Activity structures increased when formal instruction began, with four segments occurring during Days 1 and 2 and seven segments observed by Days 3 and 4. Although the types of routines used by these six teachers were similar, differences among teachers appeared to be related to how routines were presented, implemented, and enforced. A number of environmental features appeared to coerce utilization and implementation of routines.

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Sarah A. Doolittle, Paul B. Rukavina, Weidong Li, Mara Manson and Angela Beale

Using the Social Ecological Constraints model, a qualitative multiple case study design was used to explore experienced and committed middle school physical education teachers’ perspectives on overweight and obese students (OWS), and how and why they acted to include OWS in physical education and physical activity opportunities in their school environments. Three themes emerged. 1) OWS are “the same, but different.” Teachers attempted to treat all students the same, but perceived variations among OWS’ participation in PE and related individual constraints. 2) Teachers’ concerns lead to individual goals and specific actions. Teachers identified specific goals and approaches to help individual OWS who needed extra attention. 3) OWS are a responsibility and challenge. Many of these teachers felt a responsibility to devote extra time and effort to help struggling OWS to succeed. These teachers avoided obesity bias, and exhibited beliefs and actions similar to a caring perspective.

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Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau and James C. Hannon

Background:

Optimal levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have been shown to improve health and academic outcomes in youth. Limited research has examined MVPA trajectories throughout a daily middle school physical education (PE) curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine MVPA trajectories over a daily PE curriculum and the modifying effects of sex, body composition, and cardiorespiratory endurance.

Methods:

One hundred 7th- and 8th-grade students participated in daily PE lessons. There were 66 lessons throughout the semester. MVPA was monitored during each lesson using NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometers. Students were classified into FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zones using estimated VO2 Max and Body Mass Index (BMI). A population averaged generalized estimating equation was employed to examine MVPA trajectories.

Results:

On average, students’ MVPA decreased over time (β = –0.35, P < .001). Poor student VO2max classification significantly modified the trajectories (β = –0.14, P < .001), however poor BMI classification did not have a modifying effect (β = 0.03, P = .158).

Conclusions:

MVPA decreased in daily PE over time and cardiorespiratory endurance significantly modified the trajectories. The results support that extra efforts have to be made by teachers and students to sustain MVPA behaviors over a semester.

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Robert Daniel Michael, Collin Webster, Debra Patterson, Patricia Laguna and Clay Sherman

Purpose:

This study examined California middle school physical education teachers’ (grades 6–8) use of assessments based on state standards to grade their students.

Methods:

An electronic survey was used to collect data.

Results:

Of the 309 teachers surveyed, 74% based their assessments on the state physical education standards. Teachers who used standards-based assessments were more prone to assigning higher percentages of students’ grades to achievement-based assessments (e.g., skills testing, fitness, standards competency) than teachers who did not use standards-based assessments. However, all teachers gave similar weightings to administrative-based assessments (e.g., dressing out appropriately). Most of the teachers (91.2%) who reported not using standards-based assessments had limited to no professional development pertaining to the standards and perceived this as the biggest challenge to using standards-based assessments.

Discussion/Conclusions:

This study shows that professional development may be an important factor in teachers’ use of standards-based assessments and achievement-focused grading in middle school physical education.

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Patricia S. Griffin

The purpose of this study was to identify boys’ participation styles in a middle-school physical education team sports unit. Through the use of class observations, formal interviews, and informal discussions with the teachers, five styles of participation were identified: (a) machos, (b) junior machos, (c) nice guys, (d) invisible players, and (e) wimps. Several contextual factors are discussed as potential contributors to these participation styles. They are the availability of out-of-school team sport leagues, the racial and socioeconomic characteristics of the community, the age of the students observed, the interactions with teachers and other students in the classes, and the instructional strategies that teachers chose. The importance of identifying the variety of participation styles within each gender group, as well as identifying differences between girls and boys in physical education, is discussed.

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Kristin Scrabis-Fletcher, Jennifer Rasmussen and Stephen Silverman

Purpose

Grounded in social cognitive theory this study examined attitude and perception of competence and their relationship with skill practice in middle school physical education.

Method:

Participants (N = 81) were randomly selected from nine teachers’ classes. Two lessons were videotaped and students completed a middle school perception of competence survey (Scrabis-Fletcher & Silverman, 2010), and a physical education attitude survey (Subramaniam & Silverman, 2000). Student practice trials and task time were coded during skill instruction. A series of different analyses were conducted including descriptive, correlational, and multiple regressions to allow for in-depth understanding of the relationship of student practice and the psychosocial variables of perception of competence and attitude, along with the type and amount of practice occurring in class.

Results:

Analyses revealed interesting findings about how class time was spent along with a significant correlation for the total number of tasks and appropriate trials per minute and a low correlation between the psychosocial factors and practice variables.

Discussion:

Including more tasks may increase the number of appropriate practice trials. The sociocognitive bidirectional relationship however, is not predictive in nature and needs to be examined more discreetly from the student, contextual, and teacher perspectives.

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Rob J. Rotunda and Stuart Ryan

The present program consultation and evaluation examines the use of a martial-arts (MA) program in a middle-school physical education (PE) setting. Prior work and anecdotal reports suggest that MA instruction has the potential to produce both physical and psychosocial benefits for adult and adolescent participants, but rarely has a systematic program been implemented in schools. At the impetus of an MA organization, self-report measures of emotional intelligence and behavior of seventy 7th- and 8th-grade boys and girls who participated in a structured 18-session tae kwon do program as a component of their school’s PE curriculum were compared with those of 45 students who received typical PE class instruction. Participant satisfaction with the tae kwon do program and feedback received from the MA instructors and PE teachers suggest that this sport can be successfully integrated into school-based PE classes; this represents an opportunity to provide a novel programming alternative to students that promotes exercise and continued pursuit of physical activities, nonviolence, and respect of self and others. The project content, process, and challenges in working with a client MA organization to develop the curriculum, gaining entry into a public school, and explaining limitations of the research are discussed.

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Sarah E. Roth, Monique Gill, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Lindsay N. Rice, Catherine M. Crespi, Deborah Koniak-Griffin and Michael L. Prelip

( 2 ): 125 – 135 . PubMed ID: 22808697 doi:10.1080/02701367.2012.10599842 22808697 12. Gill M , Chan-Golston AM , Rice LN , Cole BL , Koniak-Griffin D , Prelip ML . Consistency of moderate to vigorous physical activity in middle school physical education . Fam Community Health