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Tan Zhang, Anqi Deng, and Ang Chen

the findings on students’ inability to transfer knowledge into action ( Demetriou et al., 2015 ), we hypothesized that the lack of procedural knowledge could be a factor that contributes to the absence of fitness-enhancing behaviors. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify middle school

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Hyeonho Yu, Pamela H. Kulinna, and Shannon C. Mulhearn

by providing students with access to a designated PA venue and equipment. The behavioral support intervention did not provide further increased PA. McKenzie et al 13 observed students’ leisure time PA at 24 middle schools during school days. The largest proportion of students came to the activity

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Senlin Chen, Yang Liu, Jared Androzzi, Baofu Wang, and Xiangli Gu

, “only Oregon and the District of Columbia meet the national recommendations for weekly time in PE at both elementary and middle school levels” ( Society of Health and Physical Educators [SHAPE], 2016 , p. 3). In addition, very few states require a minimum amount of time that K–12 students must spend in

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Yang Liu, Senlin Chen, and Xiangli Gu

insufficient levels of PAF knowledge ( Chen & Nam, 2017 ; Keating et al., 2009 ). Given the importance and insufficient understanding of PAF knowledge, PAF knowledge deserves to be a priority learning area in PE, especially during the middle school years ( Chen, Liu, & Schaben, 2017 ). Active Living Behaviors

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Sarah E. Roth, Monique Gill, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Lindsay N. Rice, Catherine M. Crespi, Deborah Koniak-Griffin, and Michael L. Prelip

study from Dishman et al 21 found that enjoyment and motivation for PA decreases as youth progress through middle school. Together with evidence showing that PA begins to decline in early adolescence, 22 , 23 these findings suggest that middle school age is an important period to target for

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Rob J. Rotunda and Stuart Ryan

related to attention and self-regulation to middle-school students. There is little doubt that many MA participants have obtained psychological and physical benefit from sustained practice. Nonetheless, most middle and high schools do not offer such a curriculum focus even in club or intramural form. Thus

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Yubing Wang and Ang Chen

knowledge than students in the traditional multiactivity PE curriculum ( p  < .05, Cohen d ranged from 0.97 to 2.21). Wang et al. ( 2017 ) examined middle school students’ knowledge learning in SHL curriculum. They found that the students’ knowledge test scores increased from an average of 37% correct

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Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride, and Xiaoxia Su

Purpose:

Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.

Methods:

Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.

Results:

Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.

Discussion/Conclusion:

The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.

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Judith L. Oslin

This investigation examined the role of routines and activity structures as organizing features in middle school physical education. Six physical education specialists from one suburban middle school were observed during their first four lessons at the beginning of the year and during an additional lesson at midyear. Analysis revealed that routines and activity structures were well established by Day 4 and remained through midyear. Three categories of routines emerged: management, instructional support, and instructional exchange. Activity structures increased when formal instruction began, with four segments occurring during Days 1 and 2 and seven segments observed by Days 3 and 4. Although the types of routines used by these six teachers were similar, differences among teachers appeared to be related to how routines were presented, implemented, and enforced. A number of environmental features appeared to coerce utilization and implementation of routines.

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Michael B. Edwards, Michael A. Kanters, and Jason N. Bocarro

Background:

This study’s purpose was to assess the opportunities for North Carolina adolescents to be physically active in extracurricular middle school environments and to compare opportunities across community types.

Methods:

Data were analyzed based on the results of an electronic questionnaire distributed to a sample of 431 schools with a response rate of 75.4% (N = 325).

Results:

Nearly all schools offered interscholastic sports while fewer than half offered intramurals or noncompetitive activities to students. “Open gym” was offered at only 35% of schools, while 24% of schools offered extracurricular activities to students with disabilities. Overall, 43.4% of schools offered special transportation to students who participated in some extracurricular physical activities. Schools in rural areas generally offered fewer programs and had fewer supports than schools located in more urbanized areas. Over two-thirds of rural schools offered no extracurricular programs other than interscholastic sports.

Conclusions:

Schools can be important settings for physical activity. North Carolina’s middle schools and its rural schools in particular, are falling short in efforts to provide extracurricular physical activity programming recommended by researchers and policy groups.1−6 Lower accessibility to extracurricular physical activities may partially contribute to higher levels of physical inactivity found in the state.