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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

seasonal macroperiodization of nutrition for middle-distance runners across their periodized plans have previously been presented ( Stellingwerff et al., 2007 , 2011 ), and data on typical dietary intakes of middle-distance athletes are featured here ( Heikura et al., 2017a , 2017b ; 2018 ). Most elite

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Phillip Bellinger, Blayne Arnold and Clare Minahan

-distance running, where the type, content, and duration of training sessions are very different, remains to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the distribution of training intensity in a group of highly trained, middle-distance runners employing 3 different methods of training

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Trent Stellingwerff

with a strong conceptual underpinning, very little scientific information exists on how to optimally implement interventions around body composition periodization throughout a given year, let alone over an entire career. This case study will feature an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon A. Rogers, Avish P. Sharma, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

relationship between average 1500-m “gun-to-tape” race speed (1500 v ) and vVO 2 max collected in the laboratory. A second aim was to produce regression equations enabling the use of a 1500-m race time to predict the vVO 2 max component of the ASR specific to elite middle-distance runners. Methods A total of 8

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David A. Greene, Geraldine A. Naughton, Julie N. Briody, Allan Kemp, Helen Woodhead and Nathalie Farpour-Lambert

This study compared tibial bone and muscle geometry and total body and regional bone mineral content (BMC) in elite female adolescent middle-distance runners (n = 20, age: 16 ± 1.7 years) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 20, 16 ± 1.8 years) using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant advantages were found in athletes compared with controls in bone and muscle geometric values for distal tibial cortical, medullary cavity, distal tibial total muscle and dorsi flexor muscle compartment cross-sectional area, and regional BMC. Results imply mechanical loads associated with middle-distance running might be beneficial to musculoskeletal health in adolescent females.

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Philo U. Saunders, Richard D. Telford, David B. Pyne, Christopher J. Gore and Allan G. Hahn

We quantified the effect of an extended live high-train low (LHTL) simulated altitude exposure followed by a series of training camps at natural moderate altitude on competitive performance in seven elite middle-distance runners (Vo2max 71.4 ± 3.4 mL·min−1·kg−1, mean ± SD). Runners spent 44 ± 7 nights (mean ± SD) at a simulated altitude of 2846 ± 32 m, and a further 4 X 7- to 10-d training at natural moderate altitude (1700–2200 m) before racing. The combination of simulated LHTL and natural altitude training improved competitive performance by 1.9% (90% confidence limits, 1.3-2.5%). Middle-distance runners can confidently use a combination of simulated and natural altitude to stimulate adaptations responsible for improving performance.

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J. Graham Jones, Austin Swain and Andrew Cale

This study examined situational antecedents of multidimensional competitive state anxiety and self-confidence in a sample of 125 elite intercollegiate middle-distance runners. Cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence were measured 1 hour prior to performance via the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory–2. Subjects also completed the 19-item Pre-Race Questionnaire (PRQ) which was designed to examine situational antecedents of the competitive state anxiety components. Factor analysis of the PRQ revealed five factors: perceived readiness, attitude toward previous performance, position goal, coach influence, and external environment. Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that cognitive anxiety was predicted by the first three of these factors. However, none of the factors were found to significantly predict somatic anxiety. Self-confidence was also predicted by two factors, perceived readiness and external environment. These findings suggest that cognitive anxiety and self-confidence share some common antecedents but that there are also factors unique to each.

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Amy L. Woods, Avish P. Sharma, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Philo U. Saunders, Anthony J. Rice and Kevin G. Thompson

High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether 4 weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runners. Ten highly trained athletes were recruited for 4 weeks of endurance training undertaking identical programs at either 2200m in Flagstaff, Arizona (ALT, n = 5) or 600m in Canberra, Australia (CON, n = 5). RMR, anthropometry, energy intake, and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were assessed pre- and posttraining. Weekly run distance during the training block was: ALT 96.8 ± 18.3km; CON 103.1 ± 5.6km. A significant interaction for Time*Group was observed for absolute (kJ.day-1) (F-statistic, p-value: F(1,8)=13.890, p = .01) and relative RMR (F(1,8)=653.453, p = .003) POST-training. No significant changes in anthropometry were observed in either group. Energy intake was unchanged (mean ± SD of difference, ALT: 195 ± 3921kJ, p = .25; CON: 836 ± 7535kJ, p = .75). A significant main effect for time was demonstrated for total Hbmass (g) (F(1,8)=13.380, p = .01), but no significant interactions were observed for either variable [Total Hbmass (g): F(1,8)=1.706, p = .23; Relative Hbmass (g.kg-1): F(1,8)=0.609, p = .46]. These novel findings have important practical application to endurance athletes routinely training at moderate altitude, and those seeking to optimize energy management without compromising training adaptation. Altitude exposure may increase RMR and enhance training adaptation,. During training camps at moderate altitude, an increased energy intake is likely required to support an increased RMR and provide sufficient energy for training and performance.

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Simon A. Rogers, Chris S. Whatman, Simon N. Pearson and Andrew E. Kilding

/kg/km) 1.00 ± 0.03 v max (m/s) 8.66 ± 0.46 Abbreviation: RE, running economy. # IAAF scores from the 800-m to 5000-m events. 19 Table 2 Stiffness Measures and Correlations With Running Economy and Sprint Performance in Male Middle-Distance Runners Middle-distance performance determinants Running economy

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Brian Hanley, Trent Stellingwerff and Florentina J. Hettinga

. Discussion The aim of this study was to analyze and compare successful and unsuccessful pacing profiles of elite-standard middle-distance runners across major championship qualifying rounds and finals. There were no statistical differences in finishing times between winning a medal and not winning one in the