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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

Middle-distance running events are highly complex from a performance optimization point of view. For example, elite middle-distance specialists need to have the aerobic system development approaching marathoners, coupled with some of the mechanical properties of elite sprinters, while concurrently

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Simon A. Rogers, Chris S. Whatman, Simon N. Pearson and Andrew E. Kilding

Successful middle-distance (MD) running in distances from 800 m to 5000 m requires both rapid and economical movements. Athletes must sustain high running velocities at and above maximal aerobic speeds, 1 with sprint performance in the final lap of 1500-m races often determining medalists on the

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Brian Hanley, Trent Stellingwerff and Florentina J. Hettinga

The 800 and 1500 m are middle-distance running events contested at all global athletics championships. Competitors qualify for the final via a series of rounds in a process that usually comprises heats and semifinals, from which the highest-placed athletes in each race, and a smaller number of

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Phillip Bellinger, Blayne Arnold and Clare Minahan

.9%, and 25.2%) compared with HR (86.8%, 8.8%, and 4.4%) and power output (79.5%, 9.0%, and 11.5%), whereas there was a higher proportion of time spent with the power output in zone 3 compared with HR in zone 3. Whether these findings would also be apparent in other endurance sport such as middle-distance

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Arturo Casado and Andrew Renfree

several studies have investigated pacing strategies in middle-distance (800 and 1500 m) running events, assessed through distribution of speeds over race segments, 2 – 4 other work has examined the influence of tactical positioning at intermediate points on finishing position. 5 Tactical issues are

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Trent Stellingwerff

with a strong conceptual underpinning, very little scientific information exists on how to optimally implement interventions around body composition periodization throughout a given year, let alone over an entire career. This case study will feature an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon A. Rogers, Avish P. Sharma, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

maximal aerobic speed in the field 4 ) to the upper limit of MSS. The MSS can be accurately measured using radar technology, 3 , 5 timing gates, or hand timing in the field. vVO 2 max is an important training variable for developing VO 2 max 4 and may be an important consideration for middle-distance

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David A. Greene, Geraldine A. Naughton, Julie N. Briody, Allan Kemp, Helen Woodhead and Nathalie Farpour-Lambert

This study compared tibial bone and muscle geometry and total body and regional bone mineral content (BMC) in elite female adolescent middle-distance runners (n = 20, age: 16 ± 1.7 years) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 20, 16 ± 1.8 years) using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant advantages were found in athletes compared with controls in bone and muscle geometric values for distal tibial cortical, medullary cavity, distal tibial total muscle and dorsi flexor muscle compartment cross-sectional area, and regional BMC. Results imply mechanical loads associated with middle-distance running might be beneficial to musculoskeletal health in adolescent females.

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Philo U. Saunders, Richard D. Telford, David B. Pyne, Christopher J. Gore and Allan G. Hahn

We quantified the effect of an extended live high-train low (LHTL) simulated altitude exposure followed by a series of training camps at natural moderate altitude on competitive performance in seven elite middle-distance runners (Vo2max 71.4 ± 3.4 mL·min−1·kg−1, mean ± SD). Runners spent 44 ± 7 nights (mean ± SD) at a simulated altitude of 2846 ± 32 m, and a further 4 X 7- to 10-d training at natural moderate altitude (1700–2200 m) before racing. The combination of simulated LHTL and natural altitude training improved competitive performance by 1.9% (90% confidence limits, 1.3-2.5%). Middle-distance runners can confidently use a combination of simulated and natural altitude to stimulate adaptations responsible for improving performance.

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J. Graham Jones, Austin Swain and Andrew Cale

This study examined situational antecedents of multidimensional competitive state anxiety and self-confidence in a sample of 125 elite intercollegiate middle-distance runners. Cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence were measured 1 hour prior to performance via the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory–2. Subjects also completed the 19-item Pre-Race Questionnaire (PRQ) which was designed to examine situational antecedents of the competitive state anxiety components. Factor analysis of the PRQ revealed five factors: perceived readiness, attitude toward previous performance, position goal, coach influence, and external environment. Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that cognitive anxiety was predicted by the first three of these factors. However, none of the factors were found to significantly predict somatic anxiety. Self-confidence was also predicted by two factors, perceived readiness and external environment. These findings suggest that cognitive anxiety and self-confidence share some common antecedents but that there are also factors unique to each.