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Edward H. Ip, Santiago Saldana, Grisel Trejo, Sarah A. Marshall, Cynthia K. Suerken, Wei Lang, Thomas A. Arcury and Sara A. Quandt


Obesity disproportionately affects children of Latino farmworkers. Further research is needed to identify patterns of physical activity (PA) in this group and understand how PA affects Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile.


Two hundred and forty-four participants ages 2.5 to 3.5 in the Niños Sanos longitudinal study wore accelerometers that measured daily PA. Several PA-related parameters formed a profile for conducting hidden Markov modeling (HMM), which identified different states of PA.


Latino farmworker children were generally sedentary. Two different states were selected using HMM—less active and more active. In the more active state; members spent more minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Most children were in the less active state at any given time; however, switching between states occurred commonly. One variable—mother’s concern regarding lack of PA—was a marginally significant predictor of membership in the more active state. State did not predict BMI or weight percentile after adjusting for caloric intake.


Most children demonstrated high amounts of sedentary behavior, and rates of MVPA fell far below recommended levels for both states. The lack of statistically significant results for risk factors and PA state on weight-related outcomes is likely due to the homogeneous behaviors of the children.

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Gashaw Abeza, Mads Quist Boesen, Norm O’Reilly and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove

over two million people, who comprise approximately 95 percent of its total labor force. Approximately 800,000 workers are employed in construction while another 100,000 are domestic workers. Qatar’s kafala (migrant laborers sponsorship) system, which governs the employment of migrant workers, gives

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Paulette Stevenson

human rights organizations began detailing human rights abuses committed by the Saudi government including: capital punishment, women’s rights abuses, sex slavery, mistreatment of migrant workers, lack of political and religious freedom, failure to recognize LGBT identities, and refusal of medical

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Sarah J. Hatteberg

towns Southall and Weiler ( 2014 ) compare this isolation to that which was experienced by migrant workers who left their families to take up residence in the company town (i.e., the work-site) where they were further segregated from other town inhabitants. In addition to this segregated isolation

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Annika Frahsa, Anna Streber, Andrea R. Wolff and Alfred Rütten

.), Qualitative researching with text, image and sound (pp.  38 – 56 ). London, UK : Sage . Grbich , C. ( 1999 ). Qualitative research in health . London, UK : Sage . Krumme , H. ( 2004 ). Contunual return: Transnational circular migration of Turkish migrant workers in retirement . Zeitschrift für

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Christopher M. McLeod, Haozhou Pu and Joshua I. Newman

residents by including migrant workers, child laborers, the homeless, the displaced, and the jailed ( Canaves, 2008 ); the scientists’ strategy was to expand the community of objects by including different measuring sites, different methods, and different objects. By including more than SO 2 , PM 10 , NO 2