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Thomas O. Minkler, Sam Zizzi, Blake Costalupes, and D. Jake Follmer

Cross-sectional and correlational research shows that dispositional mindfulness (i.e., one’s inherent propensity to be mindful) may be associated with factors conducive to sport performance such as flow and anxiety reduction ( Noetel et al., 2019 ). In one of the first studies in sport

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Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger, and Sam J. Zizzi

Researchers studying mindfulness and acceptance-based evidence among athletes support a cautious, yet optimistic, view regarding the efficacy of such approaches in the context of sport (e.g.,  McAlarnen & Longshore, 2017 ; Noetel, Ciarrochi, Van Zanden, & Lonsdale, 2019 ; Sappington & Longshore

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Steven Love, Lee Kannis-Dymand, and Geoff P. Lovell

, enables the unification of action and experience. The concept of mindfulness may play such a role in facilitating flow. This is because high levels of awareness, attentional control and autotelic predispositions are key psychological factors for experiencing flow, and such factors can be developed through

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Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue

/task-involving climate elicited far more adaptive anxiety-based and motivational responses. This body of work implies there are yet to be explored relationships between the motivational climate, psychological skill use, and athletes’ adaptive responses to performance stressors (e.g., mindfulness; Aherne, Moran

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Piotr A. Piasecki, Todd M. Loughead, Kyle F. Paradis, and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler

enhanced closeness and connectedness, coupled with feelings of increased collective efficacy and invincibility ( Dunn & Holt, 2004 ). The PDMS approach was the means by which a team-based mindfulness meditation program was delivered in the current study. A team-based mindfulness meditation program was

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Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas, and Keith A. Kaufman

acceptance of unpleasant internal states ( Gardner & Moore, 2004 , 2007 ; Kaufman, Glass, & Arnkoff, 2009 ), which is a central tenet of mindfulness-based interventions. Mindfulness skills appear especially well-matched to sport performance enhancement. As Gordhamer ( 2014 ) contended, “The benefits of

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Jason Kostrna and Aaron D’Addario

As the popularity, refinement, and effectiveness of mindfulness trainings in general psychology grows, a parallel paradigm shift is occurring within applied sport and performance psychology ( Baltzell & Summers, 2017 ). Particularly, the shift within applied sport psychology is to add mindfulness

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Trevor Cote, Amy Baltzell, and Robert Diehl

Over the past 2 decades, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in sport have grown from a niche approach to performance excellence into a “mainstream option for sport psychologists across the globe” ( Gardner, 2016 , p. 147). Such interest is based on growing empirical research supporting the

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Stuart Cathcart, Matt McGregor, and Emma Groundwater

Mindfulness has been found to be related to improved athletic performance and propensity to achieve flow states. The relationship between mindfulness and flow has only recently been examined in elite athletes. To build on this literature, we administered the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Dispositional Flow Scale to 92 elite athletes. Psychometric analyses supported the validity of the FFMQ. Males scored higher than females on the FFMQ facet of Nonjudging of Inner Experience. Athletes from individual and pacing sports scored higher on the FFMQ facet of Observing than athletes from team-based and nonpacing sports. Correlations between mindfulness and flow were stronger in athletes from individual and pacing sports compared with team-based and nonpacing sports. Mindfulness correlated with different facets of flow in males compared with females. The results support the use of the five-facet mindfulness construct in elite athletes and suggest the relationship between mindfulness and flow possibly may vary by gender and sport type in this population.

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Erin G. Mistretta, Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas, Keith A. Kaufman, and Dennis Hoyer

Although mindfulness training for athletes is an area of increasing interest, few studies have focused on the qualitative experiences of athletes in such programs. Before beginning six sessions of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) training, 45 mixed-sport collegiate athletes reported what they hoped and expected to get from the training, and responded afterward to open-ended questions about their experiences. Participants’ responses were coded for themes, with high interrater reliability. Athletes initially hoped to gain psychological benefits in both sport and everyday life, such as relaxation and less stress or anxiety, better emotion regulation, mental toughness, and self-awareness, as well as sport performance improvement. Overall, they found MSPE to be a positive experience and reported many of the same benefits that they expected. Participants also provided constructive feedback and recommendations for future MSPE training. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that athletes’ expectations predicted similar improvements in outcome measures.