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Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger, and Sam J. Zizzi

Researchers studying mindfulness and acceptance-based evidence among athletes support a cautious, yet optimistic, view regarding the efficacy of such approaches in the context of sport (e.g.,  McAlarnen & Longshore, 2017 ; Noetel, Ciarrochi, Van Zanden, & Lonsdale, 2019 ; Sappington & Longshore

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Steven Love, Lee Kannis-Dymand, and Geoff P. Lovell

, enables the unification of action and experience. The concept of mindfulness may play such a role in facilitating flow. This is because high levels of awareness, attentional control and autotelic predispositions are key psychological factors for experiencing flow, and such factors can be developed through

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Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue

/task-involving climate elicited far more adaptive anxiety-based and motivational responses. This body of work implies there are yet to be explored relationships between the motivational climate, psychological skill use, and athletes’ adaptive responses to performance stressors (e.g., mindfulness; Aherne, Moran

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Piotr A. Piasecki, Todd M. Loughead, Kyle F. Paradis, and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler

enhanced closeness and connectedness, coupled with feelings of increased collective efficacy and invincibility ( Dunn & Holt, 2004 ). The PDMS approach was the means by which a team-based mindfulness meditation program was delivered in the current study. A team-based mindfulness meditation program was

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Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas, and Keith A. Kaufman

acceptance of unpleasant internal states ( Gardner & Moore, 2004 , 2007 ; Kaufman, Glass, & Arnkoff, 2009 ), which is a central tenet of mindfulness-based interventions. Mindfulness skills appear especially well-matched to sport performance enhancement. As Gordhamer ( 2014 ) contended, “The benefits of

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Trevor Cote, Amy Baltzell, and Robert Diehl

Over the past 2 decades, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in sport have grown from a niche approach to performance excellence into a “mainstream option for sport psychologists across the globe” ( Gardner, 2016 , p. 147). Such interest is based on growing empirical research supporting the

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Stuart Cathcart, Matt McGregor, and Emma Groundwater

Mindfulness has been found to be related to improved athletic performance and propensity to achieve flow states. The relationship between mindfulness and flow has only recently been examined in elite athletes. To build on this literature, we administered the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Dispositional Flow Scale to 92 elite athletes. Psychometric analyses supported the validity of the FFMQ. Males scored higher than females on the FFMQ facet of Nonjudging of Inner Experience. Athletes from individual and pacing sports scored higher on the FFMQ facet of Observing than athletes from team-based and nonpacing sports. Correlations between mindfulness and flow were stronger in athletes from individual and pacing sports compared with team-based and nonpacing sports. Mindfulness correlated with different facets of flow in males compared with females. The results support the use of the five-facet mindfulness construct in elite athletes and suggest the relationship between mindfulness and flow possibly may vary by gender and sport type in this population.

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Erin G. Mistretta, Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas, Keith A. Kaufman, and Dennis Hoyer

Although mindfulness training for athletes is an area of increasing interest, few studies have focused on the qualitative experiences of athletes in such programs. Before beginning six sessions of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) training, 45 mixed-sport collegiate athletes reported what they hoped and expected to get from the training, and responded afterward to open-ended questions about their experiences. Participants’ responses were coded for themes, with high interrater reliability. Athletes initially hoped to gain psychological benefits in both sport and everyday life, such as relaxation and less stress or anxiety, better emotion regulation, mental toughness, and self-awareness, as well as sport performance improvement. Overall, they found MSPE to be a positive experience and reported many of the same benefits that they expected. Participants also provided constructive feedback and recommendations for future MSPE training. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that athletes’ expectations predicted similar improvements in outcome measures.

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Joanne E. Perry, Michael Ross, Jeremiah Weinstock, and Terri Weaver

Research has supported mindfulness as a predictor of athletic success. This study used a parallel trial design to examine the benefit of a brief one-session mindfulness training for performance on an individual, nonpacing, closed skill athletic task (i.e., golf putting). All participants (N = 65) answered questionnaires and engaged in two trials of the putting task. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group using a simple randomization strategy. Between trials, the intervention group received a mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness intervention included psychoeducation, reflection upon previous sport experiences, an experiential exercise, and putting applications. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the intervention group exhibited more successful outcomes on objective putting performance, flow state experience, and state anxiety (p < .05). Results suggest mindfulness may prevent performance deterioration and could produce psychological benefits after a brief training session.

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Douglas Worthen and James K. Luiselli

Female high school athletes playing volleyball and soccer (N = 32) responded to a social validity questionnaire that inquired about their experiences with a sportfocused mindfulness training program. On average, the student-athletes rated most highly the effects of mindfulness training on emotional awareness and attention focusing, the contribution of mindfulness toward team play, the benefit of having coaches learn mindfulness skills, and the application of mindfulness to other sports. There were dissimilar ratings between the volleyball and soccer student-athletes concerning use of mindfulness when preparing for and during games. Most of the formal mindfulness practices taught during the training program were rated as being helpful to very helpful. We discuss factors influencing these findings and implications for mindfulness–sport performance research.