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Priscilla M. Clarkson and Emily M. Haymes

This paper reviews information pertaining to zinc, copper, chromium, and selenium requirements of athletes. Exercise increases zinc loss from the body, and dietary intake for some athletes, especially females, may be inadequate. Blood copper levels are altered by exercise, but there is no information to suggest that copper ingestion or status is compromised in athletes. Studies have shown that urinary chromium excretion is increased by exercise, but whether this leads to an increased requirement is still unknown. There is concern that athletes may not ingest sufficient quantities of chromium; however, there are inadequate data to confirm this. The limited data that exist show that athletes do not have altered selenium status. There is no conclusive evidence that supplementation with any of these trace minerals will enhance performance. A diet containing foods rich in micronutrients is recommended. However, for those athletes concerned that their diets may not be sufficient, a multivitamin/ mineral supplement containing no more than the RDA may be advised.

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Nancie H. Herbold, Bridget K. Visconti, Susan Frates and Linda Bandini

This study examined the traditional (single and multivitamin/mineral supplements) and nontraditional supplement (herbals, botanicals, and other biologic and nutrient supplements) use by female athletes. Frequency, reasons for use, and sources of supplement information were assessed with a self-report questionnaire. Participants were 162 collegiate female varsity athletes. More than half of all athletes used some type of supplement at least once a month (65.4%). Thirty-six percent (n = 58) of the sample used a multivitamin and mineral with iron. Twelve percent (n = 19) reported amino acid/protein supplement use and 17% (n = 29) used an herbal/botanical supplement. The most frequently cited reason for supplement use was “good health” (60.1%). A major source of information on supplements reported was family (53%). With the general rise in supplement use, nutrition education on the use of traditional and non-traditional supplements is warranted.

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Tori M. Stone, Jonathan E. Wingo, Brett S. Nickerson and Michael R. Esco

of physical activity), sex, and age ( Qamar et al., 2016 ). Osteoporosis is typically diagnosed by determining the individual’s bone mineral content (BMC). The amount of BMC within a specific area is referred to as bone mineral density, which can be used to classify an individual’s bone health when

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Maja Zamoscinska, Irene R. Faber and Dirk Büsch

Clinical Scenario Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and as a consequence a reduced bone strength is a serious health impairment in older adults. 1 Generally, 2 states within the reduction range of BMD are distinguished: osteopenia and osteoporosis. 2 , 3 Osteopenia is the mild state in which BMD

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Paula J. Ziegler, Judy A. Nelson and Satya S. Jonnalagadda

The present study examined the prevalence of dietary supplement use among elite figure skaters, gender differences in supplement use, and differences in nutrient intake of supplement users versus non-users. Male (n = 46) and female (n = 59) figure skaters completed a supplement survey and 3-day food records. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test, and independent t tests were used to analyze the data. Sixty-five percent of male (n = 30) and 76% of female (n = 45) figure skaters reported use of supplements. Forty-seven percent of males and 55% of females reported daily use of supplements. Multivitamin-mineral supplements were the most popular dietary supplements consumed by figure skaters. Significant gender differences were observed in the use of multivitamin-mineral supplements (61% males vs. 83% females, p < .05). Echinacea and ginseng were popular herbal supplements used by these skaters. The 3 main reasons given by male figure skaters for taking supplements were: to provide more energy (41%), to prevent illness or disease (34%), and to enhance performance (21%). Among female figure skaters, the 3 main reasons given were: to prevent illness or disease (61%), to provide more energy (39%), and to make up for an inadequate diet (28%). Significant differences (p < .05) were observed in protein, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat intakes, and % energy from carbohydrate and total fat of male supplement users versus non-users, with supplement users having higher intakes except for percent energy from carbohydrate. Sodium was the only nutrient significantly different (p < .05) among female supplement users versus non-users, with supplement users having lower intakes. Given the popularity of dietary supplements, it is important to understand the factors influencing athletes’ use of supplements, their knowledge and attitudes regarding supplements, dosage of supplements used, and the effectiveness of these dietary supplements in meeting the goals of the athletes.

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Emily M. Haymes

Vitamin and mineral supplements are frequently used by competitive and recreational athletes. Dietary deficiencies of most vitamins are not very common among athletes except in those who restrict their food intake in order to maintain body weight. Vitamins most likely to be deficient in the diet are folate, B6, B12, and E. Biochemical evidence of vitamin deficiencies in some athletes have been reported for thiamine, riboflavin, and B6. When the diet is deficient, vitamin supplements may improve performance but are not likely to be effective if the dietary intake is adequate. Some female athletes' diets are low in calcium, iron, and zinc. Low calcium intake may reduce peak bone mass in young women. Iron deficiency may impair performance and needs to be corrected with an iron supplement. Zinc supplements that exceed the RDA interfere with the absorption of copper and lower HDL-cholesterol.

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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

up to 10% of maternal bone mineral density (BMD) at the trabecular-rich sites (lumbar spine, hip, and femur). 2 Once resumption of menses and weaning occurs, most women return to their baseline BMD levels; however, adolescent mothers, women with short intervals between pregnancies, and older women

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

external (physical activity) forces. This process affects strength and geometry in cortical and trabecular bones, as well as stimulates the release of hormones related to higher bone formation ( 20 , 46 ). Studies have shown a relationship between high-impact sports and the increase of bone mineral density

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

Low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated conditions such as osteoporosis and osteopenia are health problems that annually costs over 830 million dollars in Australia, and osteoporosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality ( Johnell & Kanis, 2006 ; Watts et al., 2013 ). The need to

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Bernadette L. Foster, Jeff W. Walkley and Viviene A. Temple

The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the bone mineral density of women with intellectual disability (WID) and a comparison group (WOID) matched for age and sex. One hundred and five women, ages 21 to 39, M = 29, were tested for their bone mineral density levels at the lumbar spine and three sites of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. No significant difference between groups existed (λ = 0.94, F(4, 98) = 1.68, p = .16, η2 = .06); however, one-sample t tests revealed that bone mineral density for the WID group (n = 35) was significantly lower than zero at the Ward’s triangle (p < .01) and the lumbar spine (p < .05). Approximately one-quarter of WID had low bone density at these two sites, suggesting that WID may be at risk of osteoporotic fracture as they age.