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Mary D. Klein Breteler, Ruud G.J. Meulenbroek and Stan C.A.M. Gielen

In the present study we evaluated the minimum-jerk and the minimum torque-change model at the path, trajectory, and movement-cost levels. To date, most evaluations of these models have mainly been restricted to path comparisons. Assessments of the time courses of realized jerk and torque changes are surprisingly lacking. Moreover, the extent to which the presumed optimized parameters change as a function of the duration and other temporal features of aiming movements has never been investigated, most probably because the models presuppose movement time. In order to till mis gap, we analyzed a subset of the data of an earlier experiment in which 12 participants performed leftward and rightward planar pointing movements. Hand displacements and joint excursions were recorded with a 3D motion-tracking system and subsequently evaluated by means of model-based analyses. The results show that despite a good agreement between observed paths and predicted paths, especially by the minimum torque-change model, the time courses of jerk and torque changes of observed and modeled movements differed considerably. These differences could mainly be attributed to asymmetrical properties of the time functions of slow movements. Variations of movement costs as a function of movement lime and skewness of tangential velocity profiles show that, especially at high movement speed, costs increase exponentially with departures of symmetry. It is concluded that trajectory-formation models have limited explanatory power in situations that require demanding information processing during the homing-in phase of goal-directed movements. However. for slow movements, deviations from the optimal timing profiles require little extra costs in terms of jerk or torque change.

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Tomoyuki Matsuo, Glenn S. Fleisig, Naiquan Zheng and James R. Andrews

Elbow varus torque is a primary factor in the risk of elbow injury during pitching. To examine the effects of shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt angles on elbow varus torque, we conducted simulation and regression analyses on 33 college baseball pitchers. Motion data were used for computer simulations in which two angles— shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt—were systematically altered. Forty-two simulated motions were generated for each pitcher, and the peak elbow varus torque for each simulated motion was calculated. A two-way analysis of variance was performed to analyze the effects of shoulder abduction and trunk tilt on elbow varus torque. Regression analyses of a simple regression model, second-order regression model, and multiple regression model were also performed. Although regression analyses did not show any significant relationship, computer simulation indicated that the peak elbow varus torque was affected by both angles, and the interaction of those angles was also significant. As trunk tilt to the contralateral side increased, the shoulder abduction angle producing the minimum peak elbow varus torque decreased. It is suggested that shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt may be only two of several determinants of peak elbow varus torque.

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Hiroshi R. Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Kambara and Yasuharu Koike

The purpose of this study was to clarify criteria that can predict trajectories during the sit-to-stand movement. In particular, the minimum jerk and minimum torque-change models were examined. Three patterns of sit-to-stand movement from a chair, i.e., upright, natural, and leaning forward, were measured in five young participants using a 3-D motion analysis device (200 Hz). The trajectory of the center of mass and its smoothness were examined, and the optimal trajectories predicted by both models were evaluated. Trajectories of the center of mass predicted by the minimum torque-change model, rather than the minimum jerk model, resembled the measured movements in all rising movement patterns. The upright pattern required greater extension torque of the knee and ankle joints at the instant of seat-off. The leaning-forward pattern required greater extension hip torque and higher movement cost than the natural and upright patterns. These results indicate that the natural sit-to-stand movement might be a result of dynamic optimization.

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Marjan A. Admiraal, Martijn J.M.A.M. Kusters and Stan C.A.M. Gielen

A central problem in motor control relates to the coordination of the arm's many degrees of freedom. This problem concerns the many arm postures (kinematics) that correspond to the same hand position in space and the movement trajectories between begin and end position (dynamics) that result in the same arm postures. The aim of this study was to compare the predictions for arm kinematics by various models on human motor control with experimental data and to study the relation between kinematics and dynamics. Goal-directed arm movements were measured in 3-D space toward far and near targets. The results demonstrate that arm postures for a particular target depend on previous arm postures, contradicting Donders's law. The minimum-work and minimum-torque-change models, on the other hand, predict a much larger effect of initial posture than observed. These data suggest that both kinematics and dynamics affect postures and that their relative contribution might depend on instruction and task complexity.

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Arthur H. Bossi, Cristian Mesquida, Louis Passfield, Bent R. Rønnestad and James G. Hopker

doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0732 28459298 24. Hopkins WG . Spreadsheets for analysis of validity and reliability . Sportscience . 2015 ; 19 : 36 – 42 . 25. Edwards LM , Jobson SA , George SR , Day SH , Nevill AM . Whole-body efficiency is negatively correlated with minimum torque per

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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke

. , & Suzuki , R. ( 1989 ). Formation and control of optimal trajectory in human multi-joint arm movement: Minimum torque-change model . Biological Cybernetics, 61 ( 2 ), 89 – 101 . PubMed ID: 2742921 doi:10.1007/bf00204593 Van Ingen Schenau , G.J. , Deboer , R.W. , & Degroot , G. ( 1987 ). On