A salient feature of professional baseball is the absence of minority members serving in managerial positions. Traditionally, it has been argued that minority players did not occupy the playing positions from which managers were generally recruited, thus accounting for their lack of career mobility in baseball. However, examination of the distribution of minority players in major league baseball reveals that they generally appear in high interactor positions in proportion to their general percentage representation among all players. Although managers continue to be selected from high interactor positions, minority players are disregarded by ownership for managerial selection. This study generates an expected frequency of minority representation among managers, based on the positions from which managers are selected and the proportion of minority players occupying those positions.
Mara Simon and Laura Azzarito
Ethnic minority female physical education (PE) teachers who work in predominantly White schools may face multiple, intersecting forms of oppression due to inherent underlying notions of whiteness, which position the embodiment of a racialized identity as “other” ( Burden, Harrison, & Hodge, 2005
Elizabeth Lorenzo, Jacob Szeszulski, Michael Todd, Scherezade K. Mama and Rebecca E. Lee
, low levels of high-density lipoproteins, hypertriglyceridemia, and prediabetes. 4 Across all adult age groups, racial/ethnic minority women are disproportionately affected by cardiometabolic syndrome compared with non-Hispanic white women, with prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome exceeding 50
Marita Södergren, Kristina Sundquist, Sven-Erik Johansson, Jan Sundquist and Maria Hagströmer
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between total self-reported health-enhancing physical activity and country of birth among women living in Sweden.
Women (age 18 to 65 years) born in Sweden, Finland, Chile, and Iraq were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire including the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-long version). Self-reported physical activity data were converted to MET-minutes per week and analyzed as continuous or categorical scores. A total of 2649 women were included in the analyses. The association between physical activity and country of birth was explored using ordinal logistic regression assuming proportional odds.
The total physical activity differed significantly between the countries of birth (P < .001). Women from Finland had significant higher odds and women from Iraq had significantly lower odds for reporting higher levels of physical activity, compared with Swedish-born women.
The direction of the associations between self-reported total health-enhancing physical activity varied by country of birth, which underlines the need to examine physical activity in each minority group separately.
Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee
aged 2–19 years between 1999 and 2014. 4 Eliminating the health disparities is addressed as one of the goals of Healthy People 2010. PA behaviors among low-income and ethnic minority (LIEM) children and youths must be addressed as obesity and sedentary lifestyles in childhood frequently track into
Allison Manwell, James Johnson and Khirey Walker
long as I catch the football.” While John’s mindset had shifted to what he perceived as the student-athlete norm, Michael was trying to determine how to keep John on the field. Michael was in a hurry to find a solution before John’s grades became any worse. Since John was a minority student-athlete, a
, Schipper van Veldhofen, Hartill, & Van Den Eede, 2015 ). In addition to gender, individuals belonging to gender and sexual minorities (GSMs) are at increased risk for sexual harassment in general. GSM refers to a population of people whose gender identity (i.e., felt, inherent sense of gender) or gender
Cheryl Braselton Anderson, Louise C. Mâsse, Hong Zhang, Karen J. Coleman and Shine Chang
Little is known about differences in athletic self-concept that are related to ethnicity, gender, and overweight status, which may influence physical activity behavior.
Children (N = 936) and adolescents (N = 1071) completed the Athletic Identity Questionnaire, measuring athletic appearance, competence, importance of activity, and encouragement from parents, teachers, and friends. Multivariate ANOVA assessed group differences and interactions on the 6 subscales.
Interaction effects were found in children (Ethnic × Gender; Ethnic × BMI), and ethnic, gender, and BMI (body mass index) main effects in adolescents. In children, Hispanic girls had lower appearance and competence ratings. Within weight categories, normal-weight Hispanic children had lower appearance and importance ratings compared with whites, and obese black children had lower importance ratings than obese whites and Hispanics. In adolescents, there were lower appearance and competence ratings among Hispanics and obese students, lower importance ratings among girls and Hispanics, and less parental encouragement in Hispanics. No gender, ethnic, or BMI differences on encouragement from teachers were found in either children or adolescents.
More negative athletic self-perceptions and less parental encouragement were seen in minorities. Consideration of these factors will be important in interventions to promote physical activity.
Mark A. Grey
This article considers the role of sports in relations among immigrant and established-resident minority and Anglo students in Garden City, Kansas, High School. Sports activities form the most direct link between the school and community, and many Garden City residents consider sport to be one of the school’s most important functions. Many perceive sports, particularly football, as a catalyst for successful academic school years. However, emphasis on student participation in sport works to alienate those who do not take part. Student participation in established sports and other school activities is encouraged under the pretext that students will more readily establish an identity with the school. Because most immigrant and many other minority students are not involved in established American sports, and do not even attend games, they risk being perceived as unwilling to assimilate on “American” terms, and they are generally given lower status in the school’s social hierarchy.
Sofiya Alhassan, Ogechi Nwaokelemeh, Manneh Ghazarian, Jasmin Roberts, Albert Mendoza and Sanyog Shitole
This pilot study examined the effects of a teacher-taught, locomotor skill (LMS)- based physical activity (PA) program on the LMS and PA levels of minority preschooler-aged children. Eight low-socioeconomic status preschool classrooms were randomized into LMS-PA (LMS-oriented lesson plans) or control group (supervised free playtime). Interventions were delivered for 30 min/day, five days/week for six months. Changes in PA (accelerometer) and LMS variables were assessed with MANCOVA. LMS-PA group exhibited a significant reduction in during-preschool (F (1,16) = 6.34, p = .02, d = 0.02) and total daily (F (1,16) = 9.78, p = .01, d = 0.30) percent time spent in sedentary activity. LMS-PA group also exhibited significant improvement in leaping skills, F (1, 51) = 7.18, p = .01, d = 0.80). No other, significant changes were observed. The implementation of a teacher-taught, LMS-based PA program could potentially improve LMS and reduce sedentary time of minority preschoolers.