, consumers may experience mixed emotions. For example, Schimmack ( 2001 ) showed study participants a series of pictures to examine the dimensionality of pleasure and displeasure. A picture rated with a high level of displeasure was often rated with a moderate level of pleasure by study participants. Such a
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
Nicholas L. Holt, Homan Lee, Youngoh Kim and Kyra Klein
The overall purpose of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences of running an ultramarathon. Following pilot work data were collected with six people who entered the 2012 Canadian Death Race. Participants were interviewed before the race, took photographs and made video recordings during the race, wrote a summary of their experience, and attended a focus group after the race. The research team also interviewed participants during the race. Before the race participants had mixed emotions. During the race they experienced numerous stressors (i.e., cramping and injuries, gastrointestinal problems, and thoughts about quitting). They used coping strategies such as making small goals, engaging in a mental/physical battle, monitoring pace, nutrition, and hydration, and social support. After the race, nonfinishers experienced dejection or acceptance whereas finishers commented on the race as a major life experience. These findings provide some insights into factors involved in attempting to complete ultramarathons and offer some implications for applied sport psychology.
Kelsey Timm, Cindra Kamphoff, Nick Galli and Stephen P. Gonzalez
The historic Boston Marathon was struck by tragedy in 2013 when two bombs exploded near the finish line during the race. This tragedy provided the opportunity to study resilience in marathon runners, whose experience overcoming minor adversities may help them respond resiliently to trauma (Dyer & Crouch, 1988). The purpose of this study was to employ qualitative methods to examine the role of resilience in helping runners overcome their experience at the 2013 Boston Marathon. The researchers used Galli and Vealey’s (2008) Conceptual Model of Sport Resilience as a guide. Sixteen 2013 Boston Marathon runners were interviewed. Participants reported experiencing a confusing, unpleasant race day, followed by months of mixed emotions and coping strategies, which were mediated by personal resources and ultimately led to positive outcomes including increased motivation, strength, new perspectives, and a greater sense of closeness in the running community.
Joerg Koenigstorfer, Andrea Groeppel-Klein and Marco Schmitt
This article reports results from a longitudinal field study examining the psychological processes underlying soccer fans’ loyalty toward their clubs and fans’ emotional states depending on the seasonal outcome of the clubs. We found that fans’ perceptions of three relationship strength indicators—satisfaction, self-connection, and intimate commitment—and the levels of basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) did not decrease and cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) did not increase when soccer clubs of the German Bundesliga were relegated to a lower division. The levels of BIRGing, self-connection, and intimate commitment in fact increased after this event, producing intense positive, negative, and mixed emotions in fans. The results support the notion that fandom is about expressing identity and attitude to life, sharing intimate details with the club, and standing by it, in both good and bad times. Thus fans and their clubs are strongly bound to each other.
Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer
, Kim, Magnusen, and Lee ( 2017 ) extend the bipolar view of emotions (i.e., positive vs. negative emotions) by providing evidence for mixed emotions felt by individuals; that is, sport fans can experience positive and negative emotions concurrently. In an attempt to better understand the determinants
T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh
encoding and enhanced memory ( Dolcos & Denkova, 2014 ) and can influence decision making ( Brosch, Scherer, Grandjean, & Sander, 2013 ). Both positive and negative emotional stimuli have the potential to influence memory ( Chipchase & Chapman, 2013 ), but mixed emotions (e.g., bitter–sweet) appear to
Leonardo Ruiz, Judy L. Van Raalte, Thaddeus France and Al Petitpas
. Mixed emotions and economic realities are key factors related to the quality of sport career transitions ( Taylor & Ogilvie, 2001 ; Wylleman, Alfermann, & Lavallee, 2004 ). Summary Much has been written about professional baseball in general and the baseball academies in the Dominican Republic in
Kenneth Aggerholm and Kristian Møller Moltke Martiny
it. 5 This kind of “mixed emotions” that included worries, insecurity, excitement, and expectations was characteristic both for participants who had been skiing previously and those who had not. A common denominator was uncertainty as they faced the possible experience of “I cannot,” which naturally
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue
did not based on the flow state scale-2 scores: A pilot study of latent class factor analysis . The Sport Psychologist, 30 , 267 – 275 . doi:10.1123/tsp.2014-0053 10.1123/tsp.2014-0053 Kim , J.W. , Magnusen , M. , & Lee , H. ( 2017 ). Existence of mixed emotions during consumption of a
Si Hui Regina Lim, Koon Teck Koh and Melvin Chan
. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 ( 1 ), 800 – 816 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.11.004 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.11.004 Hargreaves , A. ( 2000 ). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students . Teaching and Teacher Education, 16 ( 8 ), 811 – 826 . doi:10.1016/S0742