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Sun J. Kang, Jae-Pil Ha, and Marion E. Hambrick

The popularity of smartphones has led to the creation of sport-related mobile applications in the areas of games, fitness, information, and events for sport consumers. The main purpose of this study was to examine why college students use sport-related mobile applications and what benefits they received from their usage. The study employed the Motivation Scale for Sport Online Consumption and the Technology Acceptance Model to understand this usage in more detail. Using a mixed-method approach, the study revealed that college students identified fanship, convenience, and information as primary motives for using their sport-related mobile applications. For college students who are sport fans, supporting their fanship through these applications represents an important aspect of their lifestyle. Sport managers and sport application developers will benefit from understanding users’ intentions and motives as the market for sport-related applications continues to grow.

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Kristina L. Dunn, R. Curtis Bay, Javier F. Cárdenas, Matthew Anastasi, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, and Richelle M. Williams

reviewed. 9 Test-retest reliability of the BESS has been shown to be 0.70. 10 Recent technological advances allow instrumented postural control assessments to be conducted in field settings. 11 , 12 Mobile applications provide a cost-effective and convenient approach to objectively measure postural

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Hyeonho Yu, Hans van der Mars, Peter A. Hastie, and Pamela H. Kulinna

iPad and app-integrated instruction to examine students’ physical activity levels and psychosocial beliefs, finding short-term app-integrated interventions have little influence on increasing elementary school children’s physical activity and psychosocial beliefs. The use of current mobile applications

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Matheus Barbalho, Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Bianca Callegari, Ramon Costa de Lima, Givago da Silva Souza, Anselmo de Athayde Costa e Silva, and Victor Silveira Coswig

Background: Jumps are important evaluation tools for muscle strength and power and for interlimb asymmetries. Different jump tests are well related to athletic performance, prediction of injury risk, and common motor gestures of several sports such as soccer. Low-cost mobile applications (apps) have gained popularity for this measure. The authors hypothesized that the My Jump 2 app would be a valid tool to assess drop-jump performance and interlimb asymmetry in soccer players. Methods: Eleven male soccer players took part in this study (18.2 [1.3] y, 69.9 [9.5] kg, 174 [6.6] cm). The athletes performed each test twice on a force plate (gold-standard method), while the jumps were recorded through the mobile app. Measures with the My Jump 2 app were applied by 2 evaluators, independently and in duplicate (interrater and intrarater reliability). The agreement analysis between both evaluations was done using an intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots. Results: Compared with the force platform, the app tested showed excellent reliability for the drop jump’s flight time and interlimb asymmetry (intraclass correlation coefficient > .98). For interlimb contact-time asymmetry, the values were 18.4 (9.9) and 19.1 (9.9) milliseconds for the My Jump 2 app and the force platform, respectively (P = .88). For flight-time asymmetries, the values were 389.7 (114.3) and 396.8 (112.5) milliseconds for the My Jump 2 app and the force platform, respectively (P = .88). Conclusion: The My Jump 2 app is a valid tool to assess drop-jump and interlimb asymmetry in soccer players.

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Robert H. Wellmon, Dawn T. Gulick, Mark L. Paterson, and Colleen N. Gulick

Context:

Smartphones are being used in a variety of practice settings to measure joint range of motion (ROM). A number of factors can affect the validity of the measurements generated. However, there are no studies examining smartphone-based goniometer applications focusing on measurement variability and error arising from the electromechanical properties of the device being used.

Objective:

To examine the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of 2 goniometric mobile applications (Goniometer Records, Goniometer Pro), an inclinometer, and a universal goniometer (UG).

Design:

Nonexperimental, descriptive validation study.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

3 physical therapists having an average of 25 y of experience.

Main Outcome Measures:

Three standardized angles (acute, right, obtuse) were constructed to replicate the movement of a hinge joint in the human body. Angular changes were measured and compared across 3 raters who used 3 different devices (UG, inclinometer, and 2 goniometric apps installed on 3 different smartphones: Apple iPhone 5, LG Android, and Samsung SIII Android). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

Results:

Interrater reliability for each of the smartphone apps, inclinometer and UG were excellent (ICC = .995–1.000). Concurrent validity was also good (ICC = .998–.999). Based on the Bland-Altman plots, the means of the differences between the devices were low (range = –0.4° to 1.2°).

Conclusions:

This study identifies the error inherent in measurement that is independent of patient factors and due to the smartphone, the installed apps, and examiner skill. Less than 2° of measurement variability was attributable to those factors alone. The data suggest that 3 smartphones with the 2 installed apps are a viable substitute for using a UG or an inclinometer when measuring angular changes that typically occur when examining ROM and demonstrate the capacity of multiple examiners to accurately use smartphone-based goniometers.

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Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson, and Catherine Turner

Context: Popularity of using handheld devices in clinical settings has increased, especially the use of motion analysis applications (MAAs). Video-based measurement tools have been found reliable in measuring knee valgus in subjects without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, there is a need for validation of using a MAA to measure knee valgus in an injured population, given that they may exhibit higher degrees of knee valgus. Objective: To examine the reliability and validity of using a MAA to measure knee valgus during functional activities used to assess return to sport after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Design: Reliability and validity study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Twelve participants with ACLR and 20 healthy individuals. Interventions: Each subject performed single-leg drop landing, single-leg hop, and 90° cut with simultaneous 3-dimensional (3D) motion capture and video recording on an iPad. Main Outcome Measures: Peak knee valgus during the landing phase was measured using a MAA and 3D analysis. To obtain reliability, peak knee valgus was measured on 2 separate days. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients by comparing peak knee valgus between the MAA and 3D analysis. The t tests were used to compare knee valgus obtained between raters, within raters, and between the MAA and 3D analysis. Results: Our data revealed excellent intrarater and interrater reliability with low standard errors of measurement of using a MAA for both groups. Significant, moderate to large associations were found in comparing peak knee valgus between the MAA and 3D analysis. However, knee valgus was significantly different between the MAA and 3D analysis across all tasks in both groups. Conclusion: Although a MAA is reliable for measuring peak knee valgus in individuals with ACLR and healthy controls, the actual values obtained by a MAA should be viewed with caution.

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Brody J. Ruihley, Jason Simmons, Andrew C. Billings, and Rich Calabrese

represents the top-rated program on five major networks ( Nielsen Sports, 2018 ; Norman, 2018 ). The error was, instead, a technical issue causing ESPN’s fantasy-football website and mobile application (app) to crash. This Web- and app-based crash kept fantasy-sport participants from accessing their league

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Anna Thacker, Jennifer Ho, Arsalan Khawaja, and Larry Katz

combination of video analysis and observational learning provides an ideal solution for the mastery of FMS, as it allows students to receive rapid feedback on their performance. However, the effectiveness of this combination facilitated through mobile applications in PE settings has not been well researched

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Tal Krasovsky, Rawda Madi, Eyal Fruchter, Elias Jahjah, and Roee Holtzer

Texting while walking is an increasingly common, potentially dangerous task but its functional brain correlates have yet to be reported. Therefore, we evaluated prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation patterns during single- and dual-task texting and walking in healthy adults. Thirteen participants (29–49 years) walked under single- and dual-task conditions involving mobile phone texting or a serial-7s subtraction task, while measuring PFC activation (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) and behavioral task performance (inertial sensors, mobile application). Head lowering during texting increased PFC activation. Texting further increased PFC activation, and decreased gait performance similarly to serial-7 subtraction. Our results support the key role of executive control in texting while walking.

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Diane K. Ehlers and Jennifer L. Huberty

Background:

The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA).

Methods:

Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred.

Results:

Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application.

Conclusions:

Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middleaged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.