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Nadja Schott and Maike Tietjens

Mobility restriction as a consequence of a fall is a major issue of care in assisted-living facilities. These facilities are along the continuum between living in one’s own private home in a community setting and living in a nursing home. They provide limited assistance for activities of daily

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Angela Tate, Shana Harrington, Melissa Buness, Susan Murray, Caitlin Trout and Corinne Meisel


Youth- through masters-level competitive swimmers incur significant shoulder pain. Risk factors associated with shoulder pain include high swimming yardage, a lack of cross-training, decreased shoulder strength and reduced core endurance, and limited posterior shoulder and pectoral length. Since training, swimming exposure, and physical-performance measures have all been associated with shoulder pain, the methods used to train swimmers may influence the development of shoulder pain, yet studies delineating training methods are lacking.


To identify in-water and dry-land practices among youth- through masters-level swimmers in the United States (US) and describe the potential effects of training practices on swimmers’ shoulders.


A Web-based survey was developed to identify common training practices in 5 areas: quantification of swimming and dry-land training and in-water techniques such as kicking drills, upper-body stretching, shoulder and core strengthening, and cross-training.


156 swim-team coaches or captains of youth, high school, and college swim teams and 196 masters swimmers participated (N = 352). There was geographic representation from across the US.


Responses indicated diverse training practices. However, most respondents used kicking drills, which may provoke shoulder pain due to prolonged poor positioning. High yardage swum by high school and college teams increases their risk of shoulder tendinopathy. Stretching and strengthening exercises and dosages commonly used were inconsistent with current research recommendations and lacked specificity in terms of addressing typical mobility restrictions and muscle weaknesses described in the swimming literature. Core strengthening and cross-training are frequently performed.


Several areas of in-water and dry-land practice were identified that may put swimmers’ shoulders at risk for injury. Further research regarding the safety and efficacy of training programs is recommended to determine optimal methods of injury prevention and performance enhancement.

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Javad Sarvestan and Zdeněk Svoboda

more elastic than the conventional nonelastic tape, thereby producing less mechanical restraints and avoiding the mobility restriction experienced with conventional methods. 4 , 8 KT has various functions, including the correction of muscle function; application of cutaneous stimulation, which

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

validity of the findings. This fact is probably associated with the barriers to joining an intervention program and/or research protocol. For example, one of the main barriers those individuals with SCI face is mobility restrictions, especially in individuals with tetraplegia, which makes it difficult to

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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

were conducted in developed countries (United States, The Netherlands, and Canada) with high rates of human development. Extrapolations to middle-income and low-income countries should be made with caution because these countries have limitations related to accessibility of individuals with mobility

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Nicolas Farina and Ruth G. Lowry

-Locke, 2004 ). As such, activity monitors are likely to become less accurate as a person ages, with decreased walking speeds, need for walking aids, and mobility restrictions that could also compromise posture and movement. Very few studies have explored the validity of consumer-based activity monitors in

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Afshin Moghadasi, Gholamali Ghasemi, Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh and Masoud Etemadifar

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurodegenerative disease causing disability and mobility restriction. This disabling disease leads to reduced independence, increased risk of falling, limitations in activities, and the disability of people to carry out activities of daily living. 1 – 3 Studies

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Courtney L. Pollock, Michael A. Hunt, Taian M. Vieira, Alessio Gallina, Tanya D. Ivanova and S. Jayne Garland

conditions that impacted mobility (e.g., severe osteoarthritis). Controls were free from neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, which resulted in mobility restrictions and/or balance deficits. The study conformed to the standards set by the latest revision of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved

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Melanie Vetter, Helen O’Connor, Nicholas O’Dwyer and Rhonda Orr

). No physical disabilities or mobility restrictions were disclosed or evident in the recruits. Ethical approval was obtained from The University of Sydney (Protocol 2013/619) in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the State Education Research Approval Process. The study was conducted from

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Talin Louder, Dennis Dolny and Eadric Bressel

critical role in minimizing mobility restrictions 9 and helping to restore function in older adults with movement-related disability. 6 The aging process is also associated with skeletal deterioration, 5 , 6 increased levels of pain, 12 and a reduction in fat-free mass percentage. 13 It is important