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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

This study descriptively measured the universal accessibility of “accessible” fitness and recreational facilities for Ontarians living with mobility disabilities. The physical and social environments of 44 fitness and recreational facilities that identified as “accessible” were assessed using a modified version of the AIMFREE. None of the 44 facilities were completely accessible. Mean accessibility ratings ranged between 31 and 63 out of a possible 100. Overall, recreational facilities had higher accessibility scores than fitness centers, with significant differences found on professional support and training, entrance areas, and parking lot. A modest correlation was found between the availability of fitness programming and the overall accessibility of fitness-center specific facility areas. Overall, the physical and social environments of the 44 fitness and recreational facilities assessed were limited in their accessibility for persons with mobility disabilities. Future efforts should be directed at establishing and meeting universal accessibility guidelines for Canadian physical activity facilities.

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Leslie A. Pruitt, Nancy W. Glynn, Abby C. King, Jack M. Guralnik, Erin K. Aiken, Gary Miller, and William L. Haskell

The authors explored using the ActiGraph accelerometer to differentiate activity levels between participants in a physical activity (PA, n = 54) or “successful aging” (SA) program (n = 52). The relationship between a PA questionnaire for older adults (CHAMPS) and accelerometry variables was also determined. Individualized accelerometry-count thresholds (ThreshIND) measured during a 400-m walk were used to identify “meaningful activity.” Participants then wore the ActiGraph for 7 days. Results indicated more activity bouts/day ≥10 min above ThreshIND in the PA group than in the SA group (1.1 ± 2.0 vs 0.5 ± 0.8, p = .05) and more activity counts/day above ThreshIND for the PA group (28,101 ± 27,521) than for the SA group (17,234 ± 15,620, p = .02). Correlations between activity counts/hr and CHAMPS ranged from .27 to .42, p < .01. The ActiGraph and ThreshIND might be useful for differentiating PA levels in older adults at risk for mobility disability.

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Aftab E. Patla and Anne Shumway-Cook

Mobility, the ability to move independently, is critical to maintaining independence and quality of life. Among older adults, mobility disability results when an individual cannot meet the demands of the environment. Current approaches to defining mobility rely on distance and time measures, or decompose mobility into subtasks (e.g., climbing, sit to stand), but provide limited understanding of mobility in the elderly. In this paper, a new conceptual framework identifies the critical environmental factors, or dimensions, that operationally define mobility within a given community, such as ambient conditions (light levels, weather conditions) and terrain characteristics (stairs, curbs). Our premise is that the environment and the individual conjointly determine mobility disability. Mobility in the elderly is defined not by the number of tasks a person can or cannot perform, but by the range of environmental contexts in which tasks can be safely carried out: the more disabled, the more restrictive the dimensions.

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Srikant Vallabhajosula, Beverly L. Roberts, and Chris J. Hass

Tai Chi intervention has been shown to be beneficial for balance improvement. The current study examined the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve the dynamic postural control among older adults with mobility disability. Six sedentary older adults with mobility disability participated in a 16-week Tai Chi intervention consisting of one hour sessions three times a week. Dynamic postural control was assessed pre- and post intervention as participants initiated gait in four stepping conditions: forward; 45° medially, with the stepping leg crossing over the other leg; 45° and 90° laterally. The center of pressure (CoP) displacement, velocity, and its maximum separation distance from the center of mass in the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant directions were analyzed. Results showed that in the postural phase, Tai Chi increased the CoP mediolateral excursions in the medial (13%) and forward (28%) conditions, and resultant CoP center of mass distance in the medial (9%) and forward (19%) conditions. In the locomotion phase, the CoP mediolateral displacement and velocity significantly increased after the Tai Chi intervention (both by > 100% in the two lateral conditions). These results suggest that through alteration in CoP movement characteristics, Tai Chi intervention might improve the dynamic postural control during gait initiation among older adults.

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Philippa J.A. Nicolson, Maria T. Sanchez-Santos, Julie Bruce, Shona Kirtley, Lesley Ward, Esther Williamson, and Sarah E. Lamb

. , & Hendriksen , C. ( 2003 ). Onset of mobility disability among community-dwelling old men and women. The role of tiredness in daily activities . Age and Ageing, 32 ( 6 ), 579 – 584 . PubMed ID: 14599997 doi:10.1093/ageing/afg101 10.1093/ageing/afg101 Ayis , S. , Gooberman-Hill , R. , Bowling , A

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Sylvia Sunde, Karin Hesseberg, Dawn A. Skelton, Anette H. Ranhoff, Are H. Pripp, Marit Aarønæs, and Therese Brovold

, both physical function and HRQOL are important measures related to healthy aging. For people aged ≥65 years, hospitalization is associated with decline in physical function, and it might also affect HRQOL ( Brown et al., 2016 ; Helvik et al., 2013 ). Those who present with mobility disabilities while

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Elizabeth J. Protas and Sandrine Tissier

The purpose of this study was to pilot test a function-focused exercise intervention consisting of strength and gait-speed training in elders with reduced walking speed, decreased walking endurance, and functional impairment. Twelve participants, 77.2 years old (± 7.34), whose usual gait speed was <0.85 m/s, with walking endurance of <305 m in 5 min, and who were functionally impaired participated in a moderate-intensity exercise intervention. The training occurred 3 times per week, 75 min per session, for 3 months and combined 4 weeks of gait-speed training, walking exercise, and functional strengthening. The participants demonstrated mean usual gait speeds (≥1.0 m/s), endurance (≥350 m), and functional ability (≥10 score on performance battery) that were within normal limits after 12 weeks of training. Fastest gait speed (≥1.5 m/s) and muscle strength also improved significantly. Improvements were maintained during follow-up testing after 3–6 months. In summary, a 12-week intervention for frail, mobility-disabled participants led to improvements in walking, function, and strength.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Sharon L. Olson, and Elizabeth J. Protas

The purposes of this study were to evaluate community-dwelling elderly adults with different levels of perceived mobility with 5 physical-performance tests, determine the cutoff values of the 5 tests, and identify the best tests for classifying mobility status. The community-mobility statuses of 203 community-dwelling elders were classified as able, decreased, or disabled based on their self-reported ability to walk several blocks and climb stairs. They also performed the functional reach, timed 50-ft walk, timed 5-step, timed floor transfer, and 5-min-walk endurance tests. We found in all tests that the “able” outperformed the “decreased” and that the “decreased” outperformed the “disabled,” except on the floor-transfer task. The optimum cutoff values of the 5 performance tests were also reported. The 5-min walk and timed 5-step test could best separate the “able” from the “decreased,” whereas the 50-ft-walk-test could best differentiate the “decreased” from the “disabled.” The results suggest that community-mobility function of older adults can be captured by performance tests and that the cutoff values of the 5-min-walk, 5-step, and 50-ft-walk tests can be used in guiding intervention or prevention programs.

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Anthony P. Marsh, W. Jack Rejeski, Stacy L. Hutton, Cristal L. Brown, Edward Ip, and Jack M. Guralnik

Lateral mobility is integral to many activities of daily living involving transfer from one position to another. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and test–retest reliability of a lateral-mobility (LATMOB) task for older adults. Measurements of lateral mobility, balance, and strength and self-reported and performance-based physical functioning were obtained in 63 women and 77 men ≥50 years of age. The LATMOB task was significantly correlated with age, knee-extensor strength, grip strength, functional reach, and one-leg-stance time. Test–retest reliability of the task was excellent. The LATMOB task was highly correlated with the car task. Balance was significantly correlated with time to get into and out of a car and performance on the LATMOB task. The LATMOB task was significantly correlated with the Short Physical Performance Battery score. The LATMOB task is valid and reliable, but additional work is needed to assess its sensitivity to change and predictive validity.

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Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield, and Samuel W. Logan

guidelines obtained from nationally representative samples of US children with learning disabilities, 7 and special health care needs 8 from the 2007 NSCH, and children with mobility disabilities 31 from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). In the present study