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The Effects of Observing a Learning Model (or Two) on Motor Skill Acquisition

Edward Hebert

The use of demonstrations, or modeling, is among the most commonly used instructional strategies, and the idea that one could learn a motor skill by watching another perform it has intrigued scholars for decades (for recent reviews, see Ong & Hodges, 2012 ; Rosen, Salas, Pavlas, Jensen, Fu

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Are Planar Simulation Models Affected by the Assumption of Coincident Joint Centers at the Hip and Shoulder?

Paul J. Felton, Maurice R. Yeadon, and Mark A. King

In recent years, 3-dimensional (3D) forward dynamics muscle-driven models have increasingly been employed to analyze human movement. However, due to the difficulty associated with obtaining accurate subject-specific muscle model parameters, most subject-specific 3D muscle-driven models typically

Open access

Design of Eccentric Training System Based on Multiple-Input Single-Output Wiener Nonlinear Model

Chunbo Liu

efficacy of eccentric cycling has attracted researchers to adopt eccentric cycling as a model for exercise interventions. Although the efficacy of eccentric cycling has been proved, some potential barriers prevented the eccentric cycling becoming popular, such as limited number of commercially available

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Next-Generation Models for Predicting Winning Times in Elite Swimming Events: Updated Predictions for the Paris 2024 Olympic Games

Iñigo Mujika, David B. Pyne, Paul Pao-Yen Wu, Kwok Ng, Emmet Crowley, and Cormac Powell

Performance prediction in sport can be very useful for athletes, coaches, sport-science support staff, sporting federations, and national Olympic committees. Sporting federations or national Olympic committees, for their part, can use performance modeling and forecasting to support decision making

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The Potential Impact of Physical Activity on the Burden of Osteoarthritis and Low Back Pain in Australia: A Systematic Review of Reviews and Life Table Analysis

Mary Njeri Wanjau, Holger Möller, Fiona Haigh, Andrew Milat, Rema Hayek, Peta Lucas, and J. Lennert Veerman

. Our review study was part of a broader project commissioned by the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health to value the health benefits of active transport. 9 We developed the NSW Active Transport Health model and sought to include all relevant health outcomes that have sufficiently strong

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Monitoring the Heart Rate Variability Responses to Training Loads in Competitive Swimmers Using a Smartphone Application and the Banister Impulse-Response Model

Eva Piatrikova, Nicholas J. Willsmer, Marco Altini, Mladen Jovanović, Lachlan J.G. Mitchell, Javier T. Gonzalez, Ana C. Sousa, and Sean Williams

athletes 4 , 9 in various sports, including swimming. Consequently, HRV has become a promising candidate for monitoring global responses of athletes to training. 1 – 4 Given this, Chalencon et al 6 explored the possibility of applying the Banister impulse-response (IR) model 10 to describe the impact

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Interpersonal Distance Modeling During Fighting Activities

Gilles Dietrich, Jonathan Bredin, and Yves Kerlirzin

The aim of this article is to elaborate a general framework for modeling dual opposition activities, or more generally, dual interaction. The main hypothesis is that opposition behavior can be measured directly from a global variable and that the relative distance between the two subjects can be this parameter. Moreover, this parameter should be considered as multidimensional parameter depending not only on the dynamics of the subjects but also on the “internal” parameters of the subjects, such as sociological and/or emotional states. Standard and simple mechanical formalization will be used to model this multifactorial distance. To illustrate such a general modeling methodology, this model was compared with actual data from an opposition activity like Japanese fencing (kendo). This model captures not only coupled coordination, but more generally interaction in twosubject activities.

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A Comparison between Two Models of Shoulder Muscle Force Estimation

Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Joelly Mahnic de Toledo, Roberto Costa Krug, and Jefferson Fagundes Loss

Shoulder injuries are often related to rotator cuff muscles. Although there are various models for muscle force estimation, it is difficult to ensure that the results obtained with such models are reliable. The aim of the current study was to compare two models of muscle force estimation. Eight subjects, seven male and one female (mean age of 24 yr; mean height of 1.83 m), performed five isokinetic maximum concentric contractions of internal and external shoulder rotation. Two models with different algorithms were used. In both, the input data consisted of the measured internal rotation moment. Comparisons were made between the difference and the average results obtained with each model of muscle force estimation. There was reasonable agreement among the results for force between the two models for subscapularis, pectoralis major, and anterior deltoideus muscles results. Conversely, poor correlation was found for the latissimus dorsi, teres major, and middle deltoid. These results suggest that the algorithm structure might have a strong effect on muscle force estimation results.

Open access

The Fitness–Fatigue Model: What’s in the Numbers?

Kobe Vermeire, Michael Ghijs, Jan G. Bourgois, and Jan Boone

in the 70s, the impulse-response model, more commonly known as the fitness–fatigue model, was developed. 1 In this fitness–fatigue model, performance is considered the resultant of both a fitness and a fatigue component that are both induced to a different extent from a training session. Although

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Development of a Computational Elbow Model with Experimental Validation of Kinematics and Muscle Forces

Jonathan R. Kusins, Ryan Willing, Graham J.W. King, and Louis M. Ferreira

A computational elbow joint model was developed with a main goal of providing complimentary data to experimental results. The computational model was developed and validated using an experimental elbow joint phantom consisting of a linked total joint replacement. An established in-vitro motion simulator was used to actively flex/extend the experimental elbow in multiple orientations. Muscle forces predicted by the computational model were similar to the experimental model in 4 out of the 5 orientations with errors less than 7.5 N. Valgus angle kinematics were in agreement with differences less than 2.3°. In addition, changes in radial head length, a clinically relevant condition following elbow reconstruction, were simulated in both models and compared. Both lengthening and shortening of the radial head prosthesis altered muscle forces by less than 3.5 N in both models, and valgus angles agreed within 1°. The computational model proved valuable in cross validation with the experimental model, elucidating important limitations in the in-vitro motion simulator’s controller. With continued development, the computational model can be a complimentary tool to experimental studies by providing additional noninvasive outcome measurements.