In this paper, we reflect on models-based practices in physical education using a sociocritical lens. Drawing links between neoliberal moves in education, and critical approaches to the body and physicality, we take a view that models are useful tools that are worth integrating into physical education, but we are apprehensive to suggest they should redefine the purpose of physical education. In arguing this, we attempt to understand the particular effects of certain models on practice and students. We draw on the theoretical concepts of Deleuze, in particular his notion of ‘striated’ space to analyze SPARK-PE, HOPE, and Sport Education. We assert that some models can be useful tools for thinking about instruction, but models-based-practices are no substitute for a thoughtful and thorough physical education program.
Dillon Landi, Katie Fitzpatrick and Hayley McGlashan
Peter A. Hastie and Ashley Casey
This paper provides a commentary on research on models-based practice within physical education and presents a tutorial that aims to guide the reporting of future research using pedagogical models. Three key elements are presented that could be considered as essential for inclusion in any methods section in order for readers to gain an accurate and complete understanding of the results of studies. These are (a) rich description of the curricular elements of the unit, (b) a detailed validation of model implementation, and (c) a detailed description of the program context that includes the previous experiences of the teacher and students with the model or with models-based practice. Examples of why these are particularly prudent are provided by reference to papers reporting the outcomes of several currently used models (e.g., Sport Education, Teaching Games for Understanding, and Cooperative Learning).
Tim Fletcher and Ashley Casey
There are two purposes of this study. The first is to examine our experiences as beginning teacher educators who taught using models-based practice (using the example of Cooperative Learning). The second is to consider the benefits of using collaborative self-study to foster deep understandings of teacher education practice. The findings highlight the challenges in adapting school teaching practices to the university setting, and the different types of knowledge required to teach about the “hows” and “whys” of a models-based approach. We conclude by acknowledging the benefits of systematic study of practice in helping to unpack the complexities and challenges of teaching about teaching. Our collaborative self-study enabled us to develop insights into the intertwined nature of self and practice, and the personal and professional value of our research leads us to encourage teacher educators to examine and share their challenges and understandings of teaching practice.
Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear and Ben P. Dyson
A wealth of school-based interventions report on students’ positive responses to the use of models-based practice in physical education. However, research that examines the effectiveness of models-based practice rarely reports on the fidelity of implementation i.e., when all of the characteristics of a model are implemented. The purpose of this study was to explore model fidelity in the use of the Cooperative Learning model. Action research and systematic observation (using the Cooperative Learning Validation Tool which acknowledged the observation of key characteristics of the model) were used to confirm model fidelity. Consequently, the themes which emerged from the data analysis of could be directly linked to the authentic use of Cooperative Learning context. The paper concludes by arguing that when reporting on findings from empirical research on the use of Cooperative Learning we need to adopt a more robust approach in determining—through rigor and quality of research—the authenticity of implementation.
Ben Dyson, Pamela Kulinna and Mike Metzler
Peter A. Hastie and Tristan Wallhead
This paper provides a potential roadmap for the future development of research on Sport Education. In the first part of the paper, research on each of the elements of competence, literacy and enthusiasm are reviewed, with the aim of providing evidence to support the idea that the model can achieve its goals. For each of these goals we provide some potential directions which we believe are important for moving research on Sport Education forward.
These avenues include more attention to appropriate practices for enhancing student-coach effectiveness, ways to enhance the development of more equitable and inclusive class environments within the model, as well as the potential transfer of Sport Education experiences to physical activity environments beyond physical education.
Research designs need to include how teachers and students give value and significance to what they teach and what they learn, respectively. This could be achieved through researchers considering more prolonged action-based research designs that allow a close monitoring of the implementation of pedagogical approaches. These case studies can provide guidance for future pedagogical iterations of the model that can be applied within more generalizable group designs.
Michelle Flemons, Fiona Diffey and Dominic Cunliffe
To design appropriate environments to foster physical literacy, prospective teachers of physical education (PE) need a sound theoretical understanding of the learner and of the philosophy of physical literacy and need to appreciate the role of models-based practices in promoting physical literacy
Stephen Harvey and Shane Pill
Research commentary suggests the utilization of Tactical Games Models (TGMs) only exists in isolated instances, particularly where teachers demonstrate true fidelity to these models. In contrast, many academics have adopted TGMs into their courses. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Participants were 44 academics and 80 physical education teachers. Results showed that academics provided a myriad of reasons why teachers may not use TGMs, although all agreed on the need for increased teacher professional development in TGMs. Physical education teachers’ outlined that numerous competing versions of TGMs was confusing and they required more hands-on examples of TGMs. Results further highlighted disparities between academics and teachers’ conceptual understanding and pedagogical applications of TGMs. There is a critical need to create improved connections between academics and physical education teachers, which could be achieved through the extended examination of the micropedagogies of teachers practice in TGMs.
Stephen Harvey, Megan L. Smith, Yang Song, David Robertson, Renee Brown and Lindsey R. Smith
The Tactical Games Model (TGM) prefaces the cognitive components of physical education (PE), which has implications for physical activity (PA) accumulation. PA recommendations suggest students reach 50% moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, this criterion does not indicate the contribution from vigorous physical activity (VPA). Consequently, this study investigated: a) the effects of TGM delivery on MVPA/VPA and, b) gender/school level differences. Participants were 78 seventh and 96 fourth/fifth grade coeducational PE students from two different schools. Two teachers taught 24 (middle) and 30 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Students wore Actigraph GT3× triaxial accelerometers. Data were analyzed using four one-way ANOVAs. Middle school boys had significantly higher MVPA/VPA (34.04/22.37%) than girls (25.14/15.47%). Elementary school boys had significantly higher MVPA/VPA (29.73/18.33%) than girls (23.03/14.33%). While TGM lessons provide a context where students can accumulate VPA consistent with national PA recommendations, teachers need to modify lesson activities to enable equitable PA participation.
Javier Fernandez-Rio and Jose Ignacio Menendez-Santurio
The purpose of this study was to assess students and teachers’ perceptions concerning their participation in an educational kickboxing learning unit based on a hybridization of two pedagogical models: Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility.
Seventy-one students and three physical education teachers agreed to participate. Several instruments were used to collect data: (a) an open-ended question, (b) Photovoice, (c) teacher and external observers’ diaries, and (d) semistructured interviews. MAXQDA 11 software was used to assist with data management, with all participants’ answers being analyzed via thematic content analysis.
Analysis of the data produced 11 themes, three considered strong: responsibility, learning and roles, five considered moderate: enjoyment, teaching, competition, cooperation and novelty, and three considered weak: friendship, affiliation and transfer.
These findings indicated that the hybridization of the two pedagogical models seems to help increase both social and personal responsibility and to provide students with meaningful sporting experiences.