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Developing Principles of Practice for Implementing Models-Based Practice: A Self-Study of Physical Education Teacher Education Practice

Kellie Baker

Quite disturbingly and frustratingly, I’ve realized that MBP [Models-Based Practice] does not seem to resonate with pre-service teachers . . . . What am I doing wrong? How am I not getting through to them? (Reflective journal entry) This reflection exposes the feelings of inadequacy I was

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Models Based Practices in Physical Education: A Sociocritical Reflection

Dillon Landi, Katie Fitzpatrick, and Hayley McGlashan

In this paper, we reflect on models-based practices in physical education using a sociocritical lens. Drawing links between neoliberal moves in education, and critical approaches to the body and physicality, we take a view that models are useful tools that are worth integrating into physical education, but we are apprehensive to suggest they should redefine the purpose of physical education. In arguing this, we attempt to understand the particular effects of certain models on practice and students. We draw on the theoretical concepts of Deleuze, in particular his notion of ‘striated’ space to analyze SPARK-PE, HOPE, and Sport Education. We assert that some models can be useful tools for thinking about instruction, but models-based-practices are no substitute for a thoughtful and thorough physical education program.

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Preservice Teachers’ Assessment Literacy Within Models-Based Practice

Jenna Starck, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Kevin Andrew Richards

interpretations will not be valid ( Hay & Penney, 2013 ). Further challenges associated with interpretation have been identified as having difficulty articulating and setting a standard of criteria ( Wyatt-Smith et al., 2010 ). Moreover, the consideration of models-based practice outcomes adds another layer to

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Fidelity in Models-Based Practice Research in Sport Pedagogy: A Guide for Future Investigations

Peter A. Hastie and Ashley Casey

This paper provides a commentary on research on models-based practice within physical education and presents a tutorial that aims to guide the reporting of future research using pedagogical models. Three key elements are presented that could be considered as essential for inclusion in any methods section in order for readers to gain an accurate and complete understanding of the results of studies. These are (a) rich description of the curricular elements of the unit, (b) a detailed validation of model implementation, and (c) a detailed description of the program context that includes the previous experiences of the teacher and students with the model or with models-based practice. Examples of why these are particularly prudent are provided by reference to papers reporting the outcomes of several currently used models (e.g., Sport Education, Teaching Games for Understanding, and Cooperative Learning).

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The Challenges of Models-Based Practice in Physical Education Teacher Education: A Collaborative Self-Study

Tim Fletcher and Ashley Casey

There are two purposes of this study. The first is to examine our experiences as beginning teacher educators who taught using models-based practice (using the example of Cooperative Learning). The second is to consider the benefits of using collaborative self-study to foster deep understandings of teacher education practice. The findings highlight the challenges in adapting school teaching practices to the university setting, and the different types of knowledge required to teach about the “hows” and “whys” of a models-based approach. We conclude by acknowledging the benefits of systematic study of practice in helping to unpack the complexities and challenges of teaching about teaching. Our collaborative self-study enabled us to develop insights into the intertwined nature of self and practice, and the personal and professional value of our research leads us to encourage teacher educators to examine and share their challenges and understandings of teaching practice.

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Model Fidelity and Students’ Responses to an Authenticated Unit of Cooperative Learning

Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear, and Ben P. Dyson

A wealth of school-based interventions report on students’ positive responses to the use of models-based practice in physical education. However, research that examines the effectiveness of models-based practice rarely reports on the fidelity of implementation i.e., when all of the characteristics of a model are implemented. The purpose of this study was to explore model fidelity in the use of the Cooperative Learning model. Action research and systematic observation (using the Cooperative Learning Validation Tool which acknowledged the observation of key characteristics of the model) were used to confirm model fidelity. Consequently, the themes which emerged from the data analysis of could be directly linked to the authentic use of Cooperative Learning context. The paper concludes by arguing that when reporting on findings from empirical research on the use of Cooperative Learning we need to adopt a more robust approach in determining—through rigor and quality of research—the authenticity of implementation.

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A Comparison of Motivation and Physical Activity Levels Between a Sport Education Season and a Hybrid Sport Education and Cooperative Learning Season

Irene Rocamora, Ashley Casey, Sixto González-Víllora, and Natalia María Arias-Palencia

Criticizing the capacity of multiactivity, sport technique-based physical education (PE) to provide for the needs of learners, Kirk ( 2013 ) predicted a future that saw either the radical reform of PE—perhaps in the form of models-based practice (MbP)—or its extinction. Kirk’s advocacy for MbP, and

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Exploring Game Performance and Game Involvement: Effects of a Sport Education Season and a Combined Sport Education—Teaching Games for Understanding Unit

Eva Guijarro, Ann MacPhail, Natalia María Arias-Palencia, and Sixto González-Víllora

and techniques ( Hastie & Curtner-Smith, 2006 ), with the intention of heightening students’ appreciation of games. Some researchers consider models-based practice the “great white hope” ( Casey, 2014 , p. 19) and the “wave to the future” ( Dyson, Griffin, & Hastie, 2004 , p. 237) to replace the

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The Role of PETE in Developing and Sustaining Physical Literacy Informed Practitioners

Michelle Flemons, Fiona Diffey, and Dominic Cunliffe

To design appropriate environments to foster physical literacy, prospective teachers of physical education (PE) need a sound theoretical understanding of the learner and of the philosophy of physical literacy and need to appreciate the role of models-based practices in promoting physical literacy

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Models-Based Practice in Physical Education: The Case for Sport Education

Peter A. Hastie and Tristan Wallhead


This paper provides a potential roadmap for the future development of research on Sport Education. In the first part of the paper, research on each of the elements of competence, literacy and enthusiasm are reviewed, with the aim of providing evidence to support the idea that the model can achieve its goals. For each of these goals we provide some potential directions which we believe are important for moving research on Sport Education forward.


These avenues include more attention to appropriate practices for enhancing student-coach effectiveness, ways to enhance the development of more equitable and inclusive class environments within the model, as well as the potential transfer of Sport Education experiences to physical activity environments beyond physical education.


Research designs need to include how teachers and students give value and significance to what they teach and what they learn, respectively. This could be achieved through researchers considering more prolonged action-based research designs that allow a close monitoring of the implementation of pedagogical approaches. These case studies can provide guidance for future pedagogical iterations of the model that can be applied within more generalizable group designs.