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Shu-Hui Yeh, Hsiu-Ling Lai, Chiu-Yueh Hsiao, Li-Wei Lin, Yu-Kuan Chuang, Yu-Ying Yang and Kuender D. Yang

Background:

Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization.

Methods:

The study used a case-control design with pretest and posttest. Forty-seven middle-age women were recruited for this study. Three participants dropped out, 22 completed the 12-week MAE program, and the other 22 participants who had heat-intolerance or limited schedule eligibility were enrolled as the control group without the MAE exercise.

Results:

Results showed that the MAE exercise for 12 weeks didn’t change red blood cells or total leukocytes but increased lymphocyte counts. The women in MAE group revealed significant increases (P ≤ 0.01) of CD3CD4, CD3CD8, and CD4CD25 cells, associated with Treg polarization showing enhanced FoxP3 but not T-bet, Gata-3, or RORγT expression (P < .01). The control group without exercise revealed insignificant change of lymphocyte subsets or lymphocyte polarization.

Conclusions:

This study shows that MAE increases specific lymphocyte subsets and enhances Treg cell differentiation. It is suggested to encourage moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise to enhance lymphocyte function of middle-aged women.

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Danielle R. Brittain and Mary K. Dinger

Adult lesbians are insufficiently active to achieve health benefits. An 8-week pilot intervention targeting coping skills to overcome barriers, was designed to increase moderate physical activity (MPA) among adult lesbians. Sixteen lesbians aged 29 to 55 years (experimental condition [EC] [n = 10]; control condition [CC] [n = 6] completed measures at baseline and end-program. Mixed repeated-measures ANOVAs used to examine between-group differences in average daily: (a) MPA, (b) task self-efficacy (TSE), and (c) self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) from baseline to end-program, were not significant. Two data trends with moderate effect sizes were identified: (1) the EC maintained 24 minutes/d of MPA (P = .10; d = .43); and (2) TSE was maintained among the EC but decreased for the CC (P = .09; d=.44). Only a small effect size was found (P = .56; d = .16) for SRE. The intervention appears to stem declines in MPA and task-related efficacy beliefs.

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Julian D. Pillay, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Karin I. Proper, Willem van Mechelen and Estelle V. Lambert

Background:

Brisk walking is recommended as a form of health-enhancing physical activity. This study determines the steps/minute rate corresponding to self-paced brisk walking (SPBW); a predicted steps/minute rate for moderate physical activity (MPA) and a comparison of the 2 findings.

Methods:

A convenience sample (N = 58: 34 men, 24 women, 31.7 ± 7.7yrs), wearing pedometers and a heart rate (HR) monitor, performed SPBW for 10 minutes and 5 indoor sessions, regulated by a metronome (ranging from 60–120 steps/minute). Using steps/minute and HR data of the trials, a steps/minute rate for MPA was predicted. Adjustments were subsequently made for aerobic fitness (using maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) estimates), age, and sex as possible contributors to stepping rate differences.

Results:

Average steps/minute rate for SPBW was 118 ± 9 (116 ± 9; 121 ± 8 for men/women, respectively; P = .022); predicted steps/minute rate for MPA was 122 ± 37 (127 ± 36; 116 ± 39 for men/women, respectively; P < .99) and was similar to steps/minute rate of SPBW (P = .452), even after adjusting for age, sex, and aerobic fitness.

Conclusion:

Steps/minute rates of SPBW correlates closely with targeted HR for MPA, independent of aerobic fitness; predicted steps/minute rate for MPA relates closely to steps/minute rates of SPBW. Findings support current PA messages that use the term brisk walking as a reference for MPA.

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Marie Dacey, Amy Baltzell and Len Zaichkowsky

Strategies for exercise maintenance of vigorous (n=54) and moderate (n=38) regular women exercisers were compared using the Processes of Change (Marcus, Rossi et al., 1992) and Self-Efficacy scales (Marcus, Selby et al., 1992). Both groups reported highest utilization of Counterconditioning, Self-liberation, Self-reevaluation, and Reinforcement Management, as well as a high degree of exercise self-efficacy. Vigorous exercisers indicated greater utilization of Counterconditioning (p=.004) and a higher degree of self-efficacy (p=.009), whereas moderate exercisers reported higher utilization of Environmental Reevaluation (p=.028). In follow-up interviews with vigorous exercisers (n=4) and moderate exercisers (n=4), all participants reported psychological benefits of physical activity, high exercise self-efficacy, and exercising to meet personal needs. Reported differences between the two groups include physical experiences while exercising, the development of exercise behavior patterns, and social influences. Based upon this study we suggest that similarities outweigh differences in the maintenance of vigorous and moderate exercise, but certain mode-specific interventions may be warranted to enhance adherence.

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Brent Hutto, Patricia A. Sharpe, Michelle L. Granner, Cheryl L. Addy and Steven Hooker

Background:

Question order might affect self-reported regular physical activity (PA) measured with items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) PA module.

Methods:

A telephone survey was conducted using 2 forms (N = 1004, N = 212) with varying PA question order. The standard form presented moderate-PA, vigorous-PA, and walking questions, in that order, whereas the alternate form presented walking questions, followed by moderate-PA, and then vigorous-PA questions. Weighted, adjusted rates of vigorous PA, walking, meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendation for moderate or vigorous PA, and moderate PA from each form were compared.

Results:

Vigorous PA and walking were similar regardless of question order. Meeting the CDC recommendation for moderate or vigorous PA was reported less often with the alternate form among 18- to 34-year-olds. Less moderate PA was reported with the alternate form overall and among 18- to 34-year-olds, women, whites, and those with a high school education or less.

Conclusion:

Estimating PA and walking across sociodemographic strata with differing patterns of PA requires asking moderate-PA and vigorous-PA questions before walking questions. Asking walking questions first might lead to bias, especially for moderate PA. Walking, added to a survey with BRFSS moderate and vigorous PA items, should be placed after moderate and vigorous PA. Walking questions first may cause bias, especially for moderate PA.

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Jieling Chen, Emily Joy Nicklett, Yaping He and Vivian W.Q. Lou

The study aims to characterize physical activity (PA) participation by intensity and examine the biopsychosocial correlates among middle-aged and older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. Data were examined from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The percentages of participation in vigorous, moderate, and light activity among participants with CKD were 22.7%, 42.1%, and 76.3%, respectively. The participants were less likely to engage in vigorous and moderate PA if they were 70 years of age or older, were not married/partnered, were unemployed, lived in urban areas, had an advanced stage of disease, had heart disease, and/or experienced mobility limitations. The magnitude of the associations between biophysical factors and PA participation was small for light PA. The higher the intensity of regular PA, the less likely older adults with CKD were to participate. Practitioners could consider the psychosocial characteristics of the older adults with CKD and facilitate their participation in PA.

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Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan

ranges from 3–5.9 METs. Thus, moderate physical activity levels for older adults were classified as 450–885 MET-minutes (i.e., 150 × 3 to 150 × 5.9), with <450 and >885 MET-minutes classified as low and high physical activity levels respectively. Where intervention groups had been pooled for meta

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Kate A. Bolam, Björn Ekblom, Göran Bergström and Mats Börjesson

Background:

Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

Methods:

A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

Results:

Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

Conclusions:

LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

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Anne L. Adolph, Maurice R. Puyau, Firoz A. Vohra, Theresa A. Nicklas, Issa F. Zakeri and Nancy F. Butte

Purpose:

Given the unique physical activity (PA) patterns of preschoolers, wearable electronic devices for quantitative assessment of physical activity require validation in this population. Study objective was to validate uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers in preschoolers.

Methods:

Room calorimetry was performed over 3 hours in 64 preschoolers, wearing Actical, Actiheart, and RT3 accelerometers during play, slow, moderate, and fast translocation. Based on activity energy expenditure (AEE) and accelerometer counts, optimal thresholds for PA levels were determined by piecewise linear regression and discrimination boundary analysis.

Results:

Established HR cutoffs in preschoolers for sedentary/light, light/moderate and moderate/vigorous levels were used to define AEE (0.015, 0.054, 0.076 kcal·kg−1·min−1) and PA ratio (PAR; 1.6, 2.9, 3.6) thresholds, and accelerometer thresholds. True positive predictive rates were 77%, 75%, and 76% for sedentary; 63%, 61%, and 65% for light; 34%, 52%, and 49% for moderate; 46%, 46%, and 49% for vigorous levels. Due to low positive predictive rates, we combined moderate and vigorous PA. Classification accuracy was improved overall and for the combined moderate-to-vigorous PA level (69%, 82%, 79%) for Actical, Actiheart, and RT3, respectively.

Conclusion:

Uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers are acceptable devices with similar classification accuracy for sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous levels of PA in preschoolers.

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Barbara Resnick, Elizabeth Galik, Marie Boltz, Erin Vigne, Sarah Holmes, Steven Fix and Shijun Zhu

, 1998 ), which estimates moderate physical activity to be 1,964 counts per minute and may underestimate the amount of energy expended by older individuals ( Pruitt et al., 2008 ). Further differences in actigraphy occur based on the location of the device (i.e., if it is worn on the wrist, ankle, or