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Gordon G. Sleivert

Wireless microtechnologies are rapidly emerging as useful tools for sport scientists to move their work out of the laboratory and into the field. The purpose of this report is to describe some of the practical aspects of using ingestible radiotelemetric temperature sensors in sport physiology. Information is also presented to demonstrate the utility of this technology in understanding individual differences in coping with environmental stress, optimizing heat adaptation, and fine-tuning competition strategy (pacing). Wireless core-temperature technology has already revolutionized field monitoring of elite athletes training and competing in extreme environments. These technologies are valuable tools for sport scientists to better understand the interaction between the physiology of exercise and the environment.

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Darren J. Burgess

Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.

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Benoit Capostagno, Michael I. Lambert and Robert P. Lamberts

Finding the optimal balance between high training loads and recovery is a constant challenge for cyclists and their coaches. Monitoring improvements in performance and levels of fatigue is recommended to correctly adjust training to ensure optimal adaptation. However, many performance tests require a maximal or exhaustive effort, which reduces their real-world application. The purpose of this review was to investigate the development and use of submaximal cycling tests that can be used to predict and monitor cycling performance and training status. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, and 3 separate submaximal cycling tests were identified from within those 12. Submaximal variables including gross mechanical efficiency, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, lactate, predicted time to exhaustion (pTE), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), power output, and heart-rate recovery (HRR) were the components of the 3 tests. pTE, submaximal power output, RPE, and HRR appear to have the most value for monitoring improvements in performance and indicate a state of fatigue. This literature review shows that several submaximal cycle tests have been developed over the last decade with the aim to predict, monitor, and optimize cycling performance. To be able to conduct a submaximal test on a regular basis, the test needs to be short in duration and as noninvasive as possible. In addition, a test should capture multiple variables and use multivariate analyses to interpret the submaximal outcomes correctly and alter training prescription if needed.

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Alexander H.K. Montoye, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Colby Beach, Alecia K. Fox and Jeremy A. Steeves

are needed to better quantify those meeting RT guidelines, track RT participation over time and across populations, identify high-risk groups in need of RT promotion/intervention strategies, and assess intervention effectiveness. Both research- and consumer-based PA monitors have been validated and

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Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza and Michael Kellmann

sport scientists via the application of monitoring routines. By this means, elite athletes can be observed in training and competition settings with the aim of improving performance and maintaining well-being. 4 Since the cohort of elite athletes is evaluated through its accomplishments, it is commonly

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Darren J. Paul, Gustavo Tomazoli and George P. Nassis

Recovery monitoring is a staple feature in the daily routine of most professional football clubs. The objective is to measure changes in fatigue/stress and recovery and, when appropriate, take action to avoid overtraining or exposure to high loads. 1 Several different tools are used either alone

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John F. Fitzpatrick, Kirsty M. Hicks and Philip R. Hayes

, with training load monitored throughout the period. Before inclusion in this study, players were examined by the club medical staff and were deemed to be free from illness and injury. This study was granted institutional ethics approval from Northumbria University prior to commencement and conformed to

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

as sleep apnea or restless leg syndrome. 7 However, for routine assessments and regular monitoring of athletes, especially in high-performance settings, polysomnography measures are intrusive, expensive and thus prohibitive given the competition and travel requirements of most athletes. Visiting a

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Alireza Rabbani, Mehdi Kargarfard, Carlo Castagna, Filipe Manuel Clemente and Craig Twist

individual characteristics (eg, age, physical qualities, position, and nutritional status). 5 Individual monitoring of various external and internal training load variables is a strategy that is commonly used in high-level team sport athletes to reduce the risk of injuries and/or to improve performance. 6

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Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill and Simon A. Jobson

An effective training-monitoring system (TMS) can positively influence performance through monitoring program effectiveness and reducing the risk of illness or injury. 1 However, successfully implementing a TMS can be problematic in elite sport, with issues relating to end-user buy-in and a