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On-Field Methodological Approach to Monitor the Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Phases in Elite Female Athletes

Marine Dupuit, Alice Meignié, Tom Chassard, Ludivine Blanquet, Julien LeHeran, Thomas Delaunay, Elise Bernardeau, Jean-François Toussaint, Martine Duclos, and Juliana Antero

of endogenous sex hormones (via inhibition of gonadotropic hormones), which may have a potential effect on well-being or performance outcomes. 8 Many teams use athlete monitoring systems, like relying on daily self-report, to evaluate their readiness and training performance. 9 , 10 Common

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The Research Doesn’t Always Apply: Practical Solutions to Evidence-Based Training-Load Monitoring in Elite Team Sports

Darren J. Burgess

Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.

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Using Microtechnology to Monitor Thermal Strain and Enhance Performance in the Field

Gordon G. Sleivert

Wireless microtechnologies are rapidly emerging as useful tools for sport scientists to move their work out of the laboratory and into the field. The purpose of this report is to describe some of the practical aspects of using ingestible radiotelemetric temperature sensors in sport physiology. Information is also presented to demonstrate the utility of this technology in understanding individual differences in coping with environmental stress, optimizing heat adaptation, and fine-tuning competition strategy (pacing). Wireless core-temperature technology has already revolutionized field monitoring of elite athletes training and competing in extreme environments. These technologies are valuable tools for sport scientists to better understand the interaction between the physiology of exercise and the environment.

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A Systematic Review of Submaximal Cycle Tests to Predict, Monitor, and Optimize Cycling Performance

Benoit Capostagno, Michael I. Lambert, and Robert P. Lamberts

Finding the optimal balance between high training loads and recovery is a constant challenge for cyclists and their coaches. Monitoring improvements in performance and levels of fatigue is recommended to correctly adjust training to ensure optimal adaptation. However, many performance tests require a maximal or exhaustive effort, which reduces their real-world application. The purpose of this review was to investigate the development and use of submaximal cycling tests that can be used to predict and monitor cycling performance and training status. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, and 3 separate submaximal cycling tests were identified from within those 12. Submaximal variables including gross mechanical efficiency, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, lactate, predicted time to exhaustion (pTE), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), power output, and heart-rate recovery (HRR) were the components of the 3 tests. pTE, submaximal power output, RPE, and HRR appear to have the most value for monitoring improvements in performance and indicate a state of fatigue. This literature review shows that several submaximal cycle tests have been developed over the last decade with the aim to predict, monitor, and optimize cycling performance. To be able to conduct a submaximal test on a regular basis, the test needs to be short in duration and as noninvasive as possible. In addition, a test should capture multiple variables and use multivariate analyses to interpret the submaximal outcomes correctly and alter training prescription if needed.

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The Influence of Coaches and Support Staff on the Sleep Habits of Esports Athletes Competing at Professional and Semiprofessional Level

Daniel Bonnar, Matthew Hwu, Sangha Lee, Michael Gradisar, Sooyeon Suh, and Michal Kahn

from a wrist activity monitor, and an individual session with a clinical psychologist which covered the four rules of brief behavioral therapy for insomnia, a relaxation task, and motivational interviewing questions to enhance treatment compliance. Overall, there were modest changes for subjective and

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Losing Sleep Over It: Sleep in Basketball Players Affected by Game But Not Training Workloads

Jordan L. Fox, Aaron T. Scanlan, Robert Stanton, Cody J. O’Grady, and Charli Sargent

basketball players, given differences in sleep patterns between young people and adults, 8 and differences in approaches used to monitor player workloads during soccer and basketball. Young people typically have different sleep patterns in adults 9 and are subject to different scheduling considerations

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Match-Related Time Course of Perceived Recovery in Youth Football Players

Darren J. Paul, Gustavo Tomazoli, and George P. Nassis

Recovery monitoring is a staple feature in the daily routine of most professional football clubs. The objective is to measure changes in fatigue/stress and recovery and, when appropriate, take action to avoid overtraining or exposure to high loads. 1 Several different tools are used either alone

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Dose–Response Relationship Between Training Load and Changes in Aerobic Fitness in Professional Youth Soccer Players

John F. Fitzpatrick, Kirsty M. Hicks, and Philip R. Hayes

, with training load monitored throughout the period. Before inclusion in this study, players were examined by the club medical staff and were deemed to be free from illness and injury. This study was granted institutional ethics approval from Northumbria University prior to commencement and conformed to

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Comparison of a Countermovement Jump Test and Submaximal Run Test to Quantify the Sensitivity for Detecting Practically Important Changes Within High-Performance Australian Rules Football

Joel M. Garrett, Stuart R. Graham, Roger G. Eston, Darren J. Burgess, Lachlan J. Garrett, John Jakeman, and Kevin Norton

after games and training. 1 , 5 For the monitoring of neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) within high-performance team sports environments, the countermovement jump (CMJ) test is recognized as the reference standard test. 6 , 7 It has been shown to possess both robust reliability and validity 1 , 6 , 8 , 9

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Psychophysiological Responses to a Preseason Training Camp in High-Level Youth Soccer Players

Ludwig Ruf, Stefan Altmann, Sascha Härtel, Sabrina Skorski, Barry Drust, and Tim Meyer

during intensified periods such as the preseason, monitoring athletes psychophysiological responses to load is critical to guide the overall training process. 3 Psychophysiological responses resulting from exercise-induced stress are the antecedents of functional adaptations in any physical quality. 4