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Manuela Konrad, David C. Nieman, Dru A. Henson, Krista M. Kennerly, Fuxia Jin and Sandra J. Wallner-Liebmann

This study tested the acute anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influence of a quercetin-based supplement consumed by endurance athletes 15 min before an intense 2-hr run. In this randomized, crossover study, 20 runners (11 men, 9 women, age 38.4 ± 2.1 yr) completed two 2-hr treadmill runs at 70% VO2max (3 wk apart). Subjects ingested either 4 quercetin-based chews (Q-chew) or placebo chews (PL) 15 min before the runs. The 4 Q-chews provided 1,000 mg quercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin 3-gallate, 400 mg isoquercetin, 400 mg each eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 1,000 mg vitamin C, and 40 mg niacinamide. Subjects provided blood samples 30 min before, immediately after, and 1 hr postexercise and were analyzed for plasma quercetin, total blood leukocytes (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), 9 cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12p70), granulocyte (GR) and monocyte (MO) phagocytosis (PHAG), and oxidative-burst activity (OBA). Plasma quercetin increased from 80.0 ± 26.0 μg/L to 6,337 ± 414 μg/L immediately postexercise and 4,324 ± 310 μg/L 1 hr postexercise after ingestion of Q-chews, compared with no change in PL (p < .001). Exercise caused significant increases in, CRP, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, GR-PHAG, and MO-PHAG and decreases in GR-OBA and MO-OBA, but no differences in the pattern of change were measured between Q-chew and PL trials. Acute ingestion of Q-chews 15 min before heavy exertion caused a strong increase in plasma quercetin levels but did not counter postexercise inflammation or immune changes relative to placebo.

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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

.74) .319 Monocyte, µL −1  × 10 2 0.73 (0.27) 0.75 (0.17) .098 MPO, ng·mL −1 51 (29.5) 94.2 (84.5) .320 sICAM-1, ng·mL −1 265 (63.8) 245 (78.0) .136 sVCAM-1, ng·mL −1 767 (235.0) 828 (94.5) .089 TNF-α, pg·mL −1 12 (7.6) 13 (7.5) .068 IL-6, pg·mL −1 1.3 (1.4) 1.0 (0.4) .289 Leptin, ng·mL −1 34.4 (12.3) 31

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Achraf Ammar, Stephen J. Bailey, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Nabil Merzigui, Kais El Abed, Tarak Driss, Anita Hökelmann, Fatma Ayadi, Hamdi Chtourou, Adnen Gharbi and Mouna Turki

following physical exercise. Moreover, the effect of playing surface on biomarkers of immune response (eg, neutrophils [NEU], monocytes [MON], and lymphocytes [LYM]), 21 , 22 inflammation (eg, C-reactive protein [CRP]), 23 , 24 metabolism (eg, Lac and glucose [GLC]), 25 and perceptual response during

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Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe

weight status. Moreover, Sabiston et al ( 27 ) in their cross-sectional study found a direct association between VPA and CRP in adolescent boys but not in girls, and this association was independent of weight and pubertal status. It has been found that other inflammatory markers such as IL-8, monocyte

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Xiaoya Ma, Kaitlyn J. Patterson, Kayla M. Gieschen and Peter F. Bodary

The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurancetrained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise.

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Jaime S. Rosa, Christina D. Schwindt, Stacy R. Oliver, Szu-Yun Leu, Rebecca L. Flores and Pietro R. Galassetti

Leukocytosis contributes to exercise-induced immune modulation, which is a mechanism of cardiovascular protection. However, this process is poorly defined in children. We therefore measured leukocytes in 45 healthy, 18 overweight, 16 type 1 diabetic, and 8 asthmatic children at pre, end-, and 30-min postexercise (30-min intermittent or 6-min continuous). In all groups, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased at end-exercise, but returned to baseline by 30-min postexercise, including neutrophils, previously reported to remain elevated for at least some exercise formats. This highly preserved pattern indicates the importance of the adaptive response to physical stress across multiple health conditions.

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Melissa J. Crowe, Donna M. O’Connor and Joann E. Lukins

This study aimed to investigate the effects of 6 wk oral supplementation of ß-hydroxy- ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB combined with creatine monohy-drate (HMBCr) on indices of health in highly trained athletes. Elite, male rugby league players (n = 28) were allocated to 1 of 3 groups: a control group (n = 6), a HMB group (3 g/d; n = 11), or a HMBCr group (3 g/day HMB, 3 g/d Cr; n = 11). Testing prior to, and immediately following, supplementation included a full blood count, plasma testosterone and cortisol, blood electrolytes, lipids, urea and glucose, sperm count and motility, and assessment of psychological state. A 3 X 2 factorial ANOVA revealed no effect of HMB or HMBCr on any of the measured parameters except minor changes in blood bicarbonate and blood monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Blood bicarbonate was significantly decreased in the HMB post-supplementation sample compared to the control and HMBCr groups. Blood monocyte and lymphocyte counts showed no within-group changes for HMB or HMBCr supplementation but were significantly different from the control. However, the majority of these readings remained within normal range. HMB and HMBCr were concluded to have no adverse effects on the parameters evaluated in this study when taken orally by highly trained male athletes over a 6-wk period.

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Dru A. Henson, David C. Nieman, Andy D. Blodgett, Diane E. Butterworth, Alan Utter, J. Mark Davis, Gerald Sonnenfeld, Darla S. Morton, Omar R. Fagoaga and Sandra L. Nehlsen-Cannarella

The influence of exercise mode and 6% carbohydrate (C) versus placebo (P) beverage ingestion on lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell cytotoxicily (NKCA), Interleukin (IL)-1ß production, and hormonal responses to 2.5 hr of intense running and cycling (~75% V˙O2max) was measured in 10 triathletes serving as their own controls. The C versus P condition (but not exercise mode) resulted in higher plasma glucose concentrations, lower plasma cortisol concentrations, reduced poslexercise lymphocytosis and NKCA, and a lessened T-cell reduction during recovery. No condition or mode effects were observed for concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Significant mode (but not condition) effects were observed for lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1ß production over time. However, when expressed per monocyte, the mode effect was abolished and a sustained suppression in IL-1 ß/monocyte was observed in all sessions throughout recovery. These data indicate that carbohydrate ingestion significantly affects plasma glucose and cortisol concentrations, blood lymphocyte counts, and NKCA, whereas exercise mode has no effect on these parameters.

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Kevin M. Cross

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was introduced to the medical community in the mid-1960s as a powerful anti-inflammatory agent. Clinical studies and subjective claims abounded about its healing effects on a variety of musculoskeletal injuries. Unfortunately, soon after the incorporation of DMSO into rehabilitation routines, the American Medical Association (AMA) denounced many of the studies of DMSO as being unscientific in nature, and the possibility of toxic effects on the optical lens was noted in an experiment using primates as subjects. As a result, the use of DMSOin the medical community was halted. The exact mechanisms by which DMSO affects the healing process are unknown; however, several studies from the 1980s noted specific effects during various phases of the inflammatory process, such as monocyte and fibroblast activity. Presently, DMSO is considered an investigational drag and has not been approved by the Food and Drag Administration for use with musculoskeletal disorders.

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Lara A. Carlson, Samuel Headley, Jason DeBruin, Alex P. Tuckow, Alexander J. Koch and Robert W. Kenefick

This investigation sought to study changes in leukocyte subsets after an acute bout of resistance exercise (ARE) and to determine whether ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) could attenuate those immune responses. Nine male track-and-field athletes (21.1 ± 1.4 yr, 177.2 ± 5.5 cm, 80.9 ± 9.7 kg, 8.7% ± 3.8% fat) and 10 male ice hockey athletes (21.0 ± 2.2 yr, 174.3 ± 6.2 cm, 79.6 ±11.1 kg, 13.9% ± 3.73% fat) participated in 2 different ARE protocols. Both experiments employed a counterbalanced double-blind research design, wherein participants consumed either a CHO (1 g/kg body weight) or placebo beverage before, during, and after a weight-lifting session. Serum cortisol decreased (p < .05) at 90 min into recovery compared with immediately postexercise. Plasma lactate, total leukocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte concentrations increased (p < .05) from baseline to immediately postexercise. Lymphocytes decreased significantly (p < .05) from baseline to 90 min postexercise. Lymphocytes were lower (p < .05) for the CHO condition than for placebo. The findings of this study indicate the following: ARE appears to evoke changes in immune cells similar to those previously reported during endurance exercise, and CHO ingestion attenuates lymphocytosis after ARE.