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Dominic Micklewright, Murray Griffin, Valerie Gladwell and Ralph Beneke

A within subjects experimental design (N = 16) was used where participants performed a 30-s Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT) after 30-min rest and after 30-min back massage. Mood State was measured before and after each intervention and after the WAnTs. No significant change in mood was detected following rest or massage. However, WAnT performance was better following massage compared to rest. Mood disturbance increased following the WAnT in both the rest and massage conditions. The results suggest that preperformance massage had no effect on mood state yet seemed to facilitate enhanced WAnT performance. The relationship between massage and anaerobic performance remains unclear, however is almost certainly mediated by preperformance psychological factors other than mood state.

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Robert Arnot

trials ( Tajik et al., 2017 ). Acute coffee ingestion has been linked to a modest and transient increase in plasma antioxidant activity ( Agudelo-Ochoa et al., 2016 ; Moura-Nunes et al., 2009 ; Natella et al., 2002 ). Limited data suggest that CQAs may improve mood state, but to a lesser extent than

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Christina Lee

There is a shortage of evidence regarding exactly how mental imagery works to enhance performance. This study sought to determine whether it is the imagining of the task that is crucial or simply the positive aspects of a mental image. In the first experiment, 52 male students used task relevant imagery, task irrelevant imagery, or a distraction control procedure before performing an analogue task. Those in the task relevant condition showed significantly greater improvements over baseline. The second experiment involved 142 male students and included assessment of mood state following psyching up. Again the task relevant group showed significantly greater improvements, which were not related to mood states. These findings suggest that the specific content of mental imagery is crucial in determining its effect on performance. The effect does not appear to depend on alterations of mood state and may operate through cognitive preparation.

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David C. Nieman, Beverly J. Warren, Ruth G. Dotson, Diane E. Butterworth and Dru A. Henson

The relationship between cardiorespiratory exercise and psychological well-being and mood state was studied in elderly women. Thirty-two sedentary Caucasian women 67 to 85 years of age were randomly assigned to either a walking or an attention-placebo control group; 30 completed all phases of the study. Intervention groups exercised 30 to 40 minutes 5 days a week for 12 weeks, with the walking group training at 60% heart rate reserve and the control group engaging in mild range-of-motion and flexibility movements that kept their heart rates close to resting levels. In a separate analysis, 12 highly conditioned elderly women 65 to 84 years of age who were active in endurance competitions were recruited at baseline for cross-sectional comparisons. At baseline they exhibited superior scores on the profile of mood states (POMS) and general well-being (GWB) schedule. Twelve weeks of moderate cardiorespiratory exercise improved the VO2max of the sedentary subjects 12.6% but did not result in improvement in POMS or GWB scores greater than those of the attention-placebo control group.

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Courtney B. Albinson and Trent A. Petrie


To examine the relationships among preinjury and postinjury stress, coping, personality, mood state, and rehabilitation adherence.


Participants completed measures of preinjury life-event stress, social-support satisfaction, dispositional optimism, and mood state. Injured athletes completed postinjury measures of mood state, coping methods, and cognitive appraisals of stress and coping ability 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days postinjury. Their athletic trainer completed a measure of rehabilitation adherence on those days.


84 college football players including 19 injured athletes.


Negative-life-event stress predicted postinjury mood disturbance, which was positively related with appraisals. Appraisals were related to greater avoidance coping at day 7, greater active behavioral coping at days 14 and 28, and less active cognitive coping at day 28. Active behavioral coping was associated with greater mood disturbance, and active cognitive coping and avoidance coping were inversely related.


Results support cognitive-appraisal models of sport injury and dynamic views of coping with injury.

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Peter Hassmén and Eva Blomstrand

Morgan’s well-known iceberg profile, characterized by Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores above the population norm on vigor and below the norm on tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion, is said to indicate a successful athlete. Preperformance POMS scores of team members might therefore give a prior indication of the actual team performance. Nine female soccer players from the same team participated in the study. The players completed the POMS before, immediately after, and 2 hours after each game during a season. The outcome of the games greatly affected the players’ mood states. Tension, depression, anger, and confusion scores were lower (ps < .01), and vigor was higher (p < .01) when the team won. Prior to the games, only minor differences in POMS scores were detected, regardless of the actual outcome. Taken together, the results do not support the notion that POMS scores could be helpful in predicting team performance.

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Peter Terry

Research into the relationship between mood profiles and athletic performance has produced equivocal results. It appears that athletic populations tend to show more positive mood profiles than the general population, but that mood profiles are ineffective in differentiating between athletes of varying achievement levels. POMS appears to have greater discriminatory power among homogeneous ability groups in terms of differentiating between successful and unsuccessful performances. In this paper, a number of conditions that increase the predictive capability of preperformance mood profiling are proposed. In addition, measurement issues, factors influencing crosssectional and intraindividual comparisons, and proposed uses of mood profiling among elite performers are discussed. It is concluded that further research is required to fully understand how intraindividual mood fluctuations influence athletic performance, and to understand the impact of preperformance and intraperformance mood trends upon performance.

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

opportunities (ie, 20 and 90 min) scheduled at the postlunch dip (PLD) after previous night PSD on reaction time, subjective sleepiness, mood state, biomarkers of muscle and hepatic damage, and antioxidant defense after repeated sprint in athletes. We hypothesize that napping would enhance physical and

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

, respectively. Lactate concentration was measured with a portable lactate analyzer (Lactate Plus; Nova Biomedical, Waltham, MA). The peak blood lactate concentration observed after each test was used for statistical analyses. Mood state was assessed with the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) 18 immediately before and

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

do seem to produce consistent results. 13 This has been commonly assessed via the Profile of Mood State (POMS) or the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Sport (RESTQ-S). POMS is a 65-item questionnaire capable of profiling total mood disturbances or specific subscales; RESTQ-S is a 76-item tool