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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew and Gemma Pearce

Using objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), this study tested the interaction between self-objectification, appearance evaluation, and self-esteem in predicting body satisfaction and mood states. Participants (N = 93) were physically active female university students. State self-objectification was manipulated by participants wearing tight revealing exercise attire (experimental condition) or baggy exercise clothes (control condition). Significant interactions emerged predicting depression, anger, fatness, and satisfaction with body shape and size. For participants in the self-objectification condition who had low (as opposed to high) appearance evaluation, low self-esteem was associated with high depression, anger, and fatness and low satisfaction with body shape and size. In contrast, for participants with high self-esteem, these mood and body satisfaction states were more favorable irrespective of their levels of appearance evaluation. For female exercisers, self-esteem-enhancing strategies may protect against some of the negative outcomes of self-objectification.

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James Annesi

factors to controlled eating. 6 For example, physical activity–induced improvements in mood were shown to reduce emotional eating and decrease weight in women with a BMI of 30 to 40 kg/m 2 . 7 An improved understanding of interrelations of physical activity and psychosocial factors, including those of

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

if tDCS could improve swimming performance (primary endpoint) in elite athletes. We also studied tDCS effects on blood lactate concentration, effort and mood self-perception, cardiac autonomic modulation, and central nervous system (CNS) readiness (secondary endpoints). Methods Participants Eight

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James J. Annesi

, “weight-loss maintenance phase”) have not been well studied. Physical activity (PA) is the most robust predictor of maintained weight loss. 2 Although PA-associated improvement in mood is related to other positive changes in weight-loss predictors such as self-regulation and emotional eating, 3 amounts required to

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

adherence to/compliance (ie, a behavior) with treatment, 17 – 19 maintaining positive mood 17 , 18 , 20 (ie, an affect), and having confidence in returning back to activity 20 , 21 (ie, a cognition). Conceptually, the aforementioned connections between physical and psychological factors are explained

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Gordon W. Russell

Mood scales were administered to spectators attending an especially violent ice hockey game (n = 117) and a relatively nonviolent game (n = 159). Subjects completed the scales either prior to the opening face-off, during the first or second period intermissions, or immediately following the match. The between-subjects design revealed an increase in spectator hostility accompanied by a quadratic arousal function for the violent game. The relationship between hostility (and arousal) and the period of play was best described by an inverted-U function. Arousal decreased at the nonviolent match. Other mood states were largely unaffected by the two games. The results were discussed with reference to three models of spectator moods in which outcome is featured as a major variable.

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Peter Hassmén and Eva Blomstrand

Morgan’s well-known iceberg profile, characterized by Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores above the population norm on vigor and below the norm on tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion, is said to indicate a successful athlete. Preperformance POMS scores of team members might therefore give a prior indication of the actual team performance. Nine female soccer players from the same team participated in the study. The players completed the POMS before, immediately after, and 2 hours after each game during a season. The outcome of the games greatly affected the players’ mood states. Tension, depression, anger, and confusion scores were lower (ps < .01), and vigor was higher (p < .01) when the team won. Prior to the games, only minor differences in POMS scores were detected, regardless of the actual outcome. Taken together, the results do not support the notion that POMS scores could be helpful in predicting team performance.

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Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans and Paul Kowal

included three commonly used measures of subjective well-being: (a) subjective QOL, (b) self-rated happiness, and (c) reported mood ( Diener et al., 2003 ). These generally relate to two important aspects of psychological well-being: evaluative well-being (or life satisfaction) and hedonic well

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Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė and Albertas Skurvydas

plasticity), 15 , 16 but also on mood. 17 Thus, it might be expected that a combination of aerobic exercise and CR would increase PFC activity and improve cognition and mood. There is evidence that motor performance depends on cognitive functioning. Duchesne et al 18 observed that a 12-week aerobic

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Pablo Jodra, Raúl Domínguez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Pablo Veiga-Herreros and Stephen J. Bailey

single sprint and/or repeated sprint/high-intensity intermittent exercise performance following NO 3 − supplementation. 8 In addition to physiological factors within the skeletal muscle, it is recognized that psychological factors, such as mood and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), can play a role in