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Steven L. Proctor and Candace Boan-Lenzo

This study examined the athletic status differences in reported depressive symptoms between male intercollegiate team sport athletes (n= 66) and male nonathletes (n = 51) enrolled at one of two public universities in the Southeastern United States, while controlling for preferred (task-oriented and emotion-oriented) coping strategies. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the athletes reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms than nonathletes while controlling for coping strategy selection (p< .05). In terms of the actual prevalence rates of depressive symptoms, 29.4% of the nonathletes met the criterion for possible depression compared with only 15.6% of the athletes. Overall, athletic participation in an intercollegiate team sport appears related to lower levels of depression. The potentially distress-buffering aspects of athletic involvement and implications for future research are discussed.

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Campbell Thompson and Mark B. Andersen

This case study involves the progression from a cognitive-behavioral, psychological skills training approach with a rugby football player experiencing adjustment and mood disorder to a psychodynamic and interpersonal engagement with the client using themes from Buddhist psychotherapy. The study charts the development of the psychologist’s understanding of his relationships with clients and with his supervisor. We present a study of three people (i.e., the client, the psychologist, the supervisor) and how their stories and interpersonal interactions are interwoven from a Buddhist-psychodynamic perspective. We examine the influences of the dominant White culture on the male psychologist’s perceptions contrasted with the client’s background as a Pacific Islander. In addition, we present a projective test, which was central to the unfolding of this case study, designed for use with athletes. This case study is a confessional tale (Sparkes, 2002) told in the first-person from the psychologist’s viewpoint.

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Ronald L. Kamm

Like the sports medicine physician, the sport psychiatrist plays an important role in the sports medicine team (SMT). A specialist in diagnosing emotional disorders can increase the diagnostic and treatment capabilities of the SMT. The goal of this article is to increase awareness of the psychiatric disorders commonly occurring among athletes and highlight the value of accurate psychiatric diagnosis. Using vignettes involving established athletes, the article examines anxiety and mood disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, and attention deficit disorder as they occur in athletic settings, as well as other syndromes with particular relevance to athletes, such as overtraining and postconcussion syndrome. Other clinical issues encountered while working with athletes, including learning disabilities and career termination concerns, are also discussed. Finally, the basic concepts of transference and countertransference are reviewed to highlight important relational dynamics between the athlete and the SMT.

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Maria Francesca Piacentini, Oliver C. Witard, Cajsa Tonoli, Sarah R. Jackman, James E. Turner, Arie K. Kies, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Kevin D. Tipton, and Romain Meeusen

Context:

Monitoring mood state is a useful tool for avoiding nonfunctional overreaching. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress-related mood disorders.

Purpose:

To investigate the impact of intensified training-induced mood disturbance on plasma BDNF concentrations at rest and in response to exercise.

Methods:

Eight cyclists performed 1 wk of normal (NT), 1 wk of intensified (INT), and 1 wk of recovery (REC) training. Fasted blood samples were collected before and after exercise on day 7 of each training week and analyzed for plasma BDNF and cortisol concentrations. A 24-item Profile of Mood State questionnaire was administered on day 7 of each training week, and global mood score (GMS) was calculated.

Results:

Time-trial performance was impaired during INT (P = .01) and REC (P = .02) compared with NT. Basal plasma cortisol (NT = 153 ± 16 ng/mL, INT = 130 ± 11 ng/mL, REC = 150 ± 14 ng/ml) and BDNF (NT = 484 ± 122 pg/mL, INT = 488 ± 122 pg/mL, REC = 383 ± 56 pg/mL) concentrations were similar between training conditions. Likewise, similar exercise-induced increases in cortisol and BDNF concentrations were observed between training conditions. GMS was 32% greater during INT vs NT (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Consistent with a state of functional overreaching (FOR), impairments in performance and mood state with INT were restored after 1 wk of REC. These results support evidence for mood changes before plasma BDNF concentrations as a biochemical marker of FOR and that cortisol is not a useful marker for predicting FOR.

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Helen M. Parker, Robyn Gallagher, Christine Duffield, Ding Ding, David Sibbritt, and Lin Perry

forward (model 4) and then backward (model 4a) regression and included adjustment for age, gender, BMI, caring responsibilities, work location (metropolitan/regional), work hours, shift work, and chronic diseases (mood disorder, bone and joint disease, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and

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Natalie S. Sherry, Abigail Feder, Raymond Pan, Shawn R. Eagle, and Anthony P. Kontos

/mood symptoms postinjury ( Sandel et al., 2017 ). Similarly, a history of a mood disorder prior to the injury is associated with more severe sleep difficulties after concussion, and poor sleep contributes to worse outcomes ( Brustman et al., 2020 ; Chung et al., 2019 ). Further complicating the

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson, and Heather C. Gilbert

symptoms is related to nascent and insidious changes in related areas of CTE. Despite of the comorbid, there has been no attempt at proposing a structural and functional base that will account for symptoms, mood disorders, behavior, motor impairment, and cognitive deficits in concussion. We believe that

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Michael Dressing, Jillian Wise, Jennifer Katzenstein, and P. Patrick Mularoni

any prior anxiety or mood disorders on a day-to-day basis. Our study evaluated the validity of a measure created to assess academic-related anxiety in high-school athletes following concussion. We hypothesized a longer time frame for the return to school and sports after concussion in those with

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Janine V. Olthuis, Margo C. Watt, Christopher E. J. DeWolfe, Emma Connell, Emily N. Wright, and Laura Sevigny

Anxiety and mood disorders are common worldwide and cause significant functional impairment ( Hammer-Helmich et al., 2018 ; McKnight, Monfort, Kashdan, Blalock, & Calton, 2016 ), with one-year prevalence rates of 3.6% and 4.4%, respectively ( World Health Organization, 2017 ). Importantly, women

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Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella, and Michael Blair Evans

, evident, for instance, in social and generalized anxiety disorders ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Depression refers to persistent feelings of sadness and worthlessness and includes mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder and dysthymia ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013