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John B. Bartholomew

This experiment was designed to examine the effects of resistance exercise on a manipulated preexercise mood. Participants were 40 undergraduate males who were randomly assigned to either resistance exercise or no-exercise, placebo activity. Prior to each session, participants were exposed to 1 of 3 mood inductions: positive, negative, or neutral, each of which was induced through the use of guided imagery. Resistance exercisers in the control condition reported increased anxiety and anger within 5 nun postexercise. This quickly dissipated, with anxiety falling below baseline values within 30 min postexercise. Neither condition was able to maintain the manipulated positive mood. Likewise, both conditions reduced the manipulated negative mood. However, the mood-enhancing effect of the placebo activity plateaued within 15 min. while the anxiolytic effect of exercise continued throughout recovery.

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Raphaël Laurin, Michel Nicolas, and David Lavallee

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a personal goal-based intervention on positive and negative moods among young athletes at a soccer academy. Study participants (N =22) were randomized into either a treatment group, which participated in a personal goal-management program (Bouffard, Labelle, Dubé, & Lapierre, 1999), or a neutral-task control group. Participants’ mood states were measured every 3 weeks. Results indicated significant postintervention group differences in positive and negative moods states, with the treatment group reporting higher levels of positive moods and lower levels of negative moods. A significant within-group difference over time was also found for the treatment group, indicating an increase in positive mood states and decrease in negative mood states as the program progressed. Findings from this study are used to inform recommendations for sport psychology interventions that use specific goal management procedures to facilitate positive emotional states among young athletes.

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Larissa Di Bella, Kenji Doma, Wade Heath Sinclair, and Jonathan Douglas Connor

narrower 95% confidence intervals for parameters exhibiting significant differences between conditions. Table 4 Mean Differences (95% CI) Between the CON, AUG-FB, and CDD Feedback Conditions for All Physical Performance and Affective Mood States CDD vs CON AUG-FB vs CG TECH-FB vs CG CDD vs AUG-FB CDD vs

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Pablo Jodra, Raúl Domínguez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Pablo Veiga-Herreros, and Stephen J. Bailey

ingested BJ or placebo. In the first experimental session, 8 subjects ingested BJ supplementation and 7 subjects ingested placebo. One hundred and fifty minutes after ingesting the supplement, participants completed the profile of mood states (POMS) questionnaire. Participants then completed a 30-second

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Robert A. Carels, Bonnie Berger, and Lynn Darby

Mood states influence evaluative judgments that can affect the decision to exercise or to continue to exercise. This study examined how mood associated with graded exercise testing (GXT) in sedentary, obese, postmenopausal women (N = 25) was associated with physical activity and predicted VO2max during and after a behavioral weight-loss program (BWLP). Measures of physical activity included planned exercise, calories from physical activity, leisure-time physical activity, and predicted VO2max. Mood before and after pre-BWLP GXT was assessed using the Profile of Mood States. Mood before and after the GXT was more strongly associated with planned exercise than other forms of physical activity, and this effect became stronger over time. Mood enhancement in response to exercise was not related to physical activity. Mood before and after exercise might yield important clinical information that can be used to promote physical activity in sedentary adults.

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David T. Martin, Mark B. Andersen, and Ward Gates

This study examined whether the Profile of Mood States questionnaire (POMS) is a useful tool for monitoring training stress in cycling athletes. Participants (n = 11) completed the POMS weekly during six weeks of high-intensity interval cycling and a one-week taper. Cycling performance improved over the first three weeks of training, plateaued during Weeks 4 and 5, decreased slightly following Week 6, and then significantly increased during the one-week taper. Neither the high-intensity interval training nor the one-week taper significantly affected total mood or specific mood states. POMS data from two cyclists who did not show improved performance capabilities during the taper (overtraining) were not distinctly unique when compared to cyclists who did improve. Also, one cyclist, who on some days had the highest total mood disturbance, responded well to the taper and produced his best personal effort during this time period. These findings raise questions about the usefulness of POMS to distinguish, at an individual level, between periods of productive and counterproductive high-intensity training.

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Neda Nasrollahi, Jordan Quensell, and Liana Machado

also been shown to improve mood states in younger adults ( Basso & Suzuki, 2017 ; Legrand et al., 2018 ; Reed & Ones, 2006 ), but the findings in older adults are mixed and limited. While several studies have reported that acute light- to moderate-intensity aerobic or resistance exercise positively

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Maggie Evans, Kelly J. Rohan, Jonah Meyerhoff, Richard J. Norton, and Jeremy S. Sibold

validity ( Beck et al., 1988 ). Profile of Mood States—Brief Version The tension and depressed subscales of the Profile of Mood States—Brief Version (POMS Brief; McNair et al., 1992 ) were included to capture temporal fluctuations in transient anxious and depressed mood states, respectively, that may not

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QinLong Li, Charles J. Steward, Tom Cullen, Kaixuan Che, and Yue Zhou

negatively impact sleep. 5 For example, high-intensity evening exercise elicits sympathetic-mediated physiological responses, including an increase in nocturnal heart rate 3 , 4 and a reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). 3 Moreover, the stress of competition can manifest as negative mood states that

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Danielle M. Dobney, Scott G. Thomas, Tim Taha, and Michelle Keightley

Measures There were 5 primary outcomes of interest: resting-state HRV, grip strength, BP, profile of mood states—short form (POMS-SF), and the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT-2). Measures selected for this study were chosen based on a specific set of criteria. Criteria for measurement inclusion in