A theoretical framework was developed to frame research on the moral thought and actions of teachers and students. The moral judgment of K-12 physical education teachers (n = 47) was investigated to determine their characteristic types of moral judgment, the amount of variability in moral judgment, and how this variability was distributed with regard to gender, teaching level, formal education, amount of coaching experience, type of coaching involvement, and coaching aspiration. Moral judgment was assessed according to Rest’s (1979b) Defining Issues Test. The largest differences were revealed for the coaching related subgroups. The total sample mean P (principled reasoning) score of 37.8% was lower than the normative mean for comparison groups in other studies employing the DIT.
Steven A. Henkel and Neal F. Earls
Andrew Rudd, Susan Mullane and Sharon Stoll
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the moral judgments of sport managers called the Moral Judgments of Sport Managers Instrument (MJSMI). More specifically, our intention was to measure moral judgment on a unidimensional level given past research suggesting moral judgment is a unidimensional construct (Hahm, Beller, & Stoll, 1989; Kohlberg, 1984; Piaget, 1932; Rest, 1979, 1986). The MJSMI contains 8 moral dilemmas/stories in the context of sport management. Sport managers respond to the dilemmas on a four-point Likert scale. Three pilot studies were undertaken to develop the MJSMI. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis were the primary methods for assaying reliability and validity. Results consistently showed that sport managers’ responses vary depending on the nature of the moral scenario and thus do not indicate a unidimensional construct. The reasons for inconsistent responses are thoroughly discussed.
Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse
of emotions, moral judgments, and athletes’ doping likelihood. In other words, experimental evidence can examine whether we can reduce moral disengagement and whether this would lead to a reduction in doping. In a recent meta-analysis ( Ntoumanis, Ng, Barkoukis, & Backhouse, 2014 ), it was emphasized
Joon Sung Lee, Dae Hee Kwak and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove
Athlete endorsers’ transgressions pose a dilemma for loyal fans who have established emotional attachments toward the individual. However, little is known regarding how fans maintain their support for the wrongdoer. Drawing on moral psychology and social identity theory, the current study proposes and examines a conceptual model incorporating athlete identification, moral emotions, moral reasoning strategies, and consumer evaluations. By using an actual scandal involving an NFL player (i.e., Ray Rice), the results show that fan identification suppresses the experience of negative moral emotions but facilitates fans’ moral disengagement processes, which enables fans to support the wrongdoer. Moreover, negative moral emotions motivate the moral coupling process. Findings contribute to the sport consumer behavior literature that highly identified fans seem to regulate negative emotions but deliberately select moral disengagement reasoning strategies to maintain their positive stance toward the wrongdoer and associated brands.
Sandra L. Gibbons and Vicki Ebbeck
This study examined the effectiveness of social learning (SL) or structural developmental (SD) teaching strategies on the moral development of elementary-age students. Participants were 204 physical education students in Grades 4,5, and 6; three classrooms in each grade were randomly assigned to control, SL, or SD groups. Self-report measures assessed moral judgment, reason, and intention; teachers rated prosocial behavior. By mid- and postintervention class-level analyses, the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher than the control on moral judgment and/or intention; by postintervention, the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. Mid- and postintervention student-level analyses showed that the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher on moral judgment, intention, and behavior; the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. These results provide support for the effectiveness of both social learning and structural-developmental teaching strategies on the moral development of children in physical education.
Terry A. Senne and G. Linda Rikard
A comparative analysis of two PETE portfolio models was conducted to determine the impact on intern perceptions of the value of the teaching portfolio, intern professional growth, and portfolio representation in single and dual internship site placements. The portfolio model served as the curricular intervention during the student teaching experience of 67 interns in two PETE programs. A mixed method was used to discern the impact of each portfolio model. The Defining Issues Test, weekly reflection logs, and a culminating questionnaire served as data sources. One program employed extensive reflective writings and single placement sites; the other program used less extensive reflective practice and dual placement sites. Although interns showed no change in moral judgment reasoning, most valued the portfolio process as an indicator of professional growth. Differences in reflective practice and similarities in dual versus single-site placements were noted.
Brenda Jo Bredemeier and David L. Shields
The designation of an act as aggressive involves an implicit or explicit moral judgment. Consequently, research on aggression must address the value issues involved. The present article suggests that Haan’s theory of interactional morality can be used to provide a framework for social scientific research into moral issues. Haan’s model, however, must be adapted to the unique context of sport. This study applies the concept of frame analysis as a procedure for clarifying the moral reasoning associated with athletic aggression. In contrast to similar acts in everyday life, moral ambiguity characterizes some sport acts intended to deliver minor noxious stimuli. The label of aggression must be used with caution when designating such acts.
Maria Kavussanu and Christopher M. Spray
This study examined the network of relationships among moral atmosphere, perceived performance motivational climate, and moral functioning of male youth football players. Participants were 325 footballers recruited from 24 teams of a youth football league. They responded to scenarios describing cheating and aggressive behaviors likely to occur during a football game by indicating their moral judgment, intention, and behavior, which represented moral functioning. The moral atmosphere of the team and participants’ perceptions of the team’s performance motivational climate were also measured. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of an atmosphere condoning cheating and aggressive behaviors were associated with views that a performance motivational climate is salient in the team, while both moral atmosphere and perceived performance climate corresponded to low levels of moral functioning in football. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike conduct from sport.
Maria Kavussanu and Glyn C. Roberts
This study examined the role of achievement goals on indices of moral functioning (i.e., moral judgment, intention and behavior), unsportsmanlike attitudes, and judgments about the legitimacy of intentionally injurious acts in college basketball players. Male (n = 56) and female (n = 143) athletes completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences according to gender on the variables of interest. Specifically, male athletes reported higher ego orientation, lower task orientation, lower levels of moral functioning, and greater approval of unsportsmanlike behaviors, and they were more likely than females to judge injurious acts as legitimate. For the female sample, canonical correlation analysis indicated the presence of a significant but weak relationship between goal orientations and the set of moral variables. Higher ego orientation was related to lower levels of the judgment and intention indices of moral functioning and greater acceptance of intentionally injurious acts. Although this relationship was significant, the strength of the association between the two sets of variables accounted for only 9% of the variance in the set of moral variables.
Terilyn C. Shigeno, E. Earlynn Lauer, Leslee A. Fisher, Emily J. Johnson and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek
sources influencing the judgment process are highlighted next. Contextual influences The main contextual influence on athletes’ moral judgment is the moral atmosphere , which includes collective norms and the institutional value ( Power, Higgins, & Kohlberg, 1989 ). Collective norms refer to the