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Edward Hebert

Among the many concerns of university leaders, faculty morale and job satisfaction are important but often overlooked. Morale is associated with faculty perceptions of their department, university, and peers and influences their interactions with each other, staff, and students. Job satisfaction

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Hiroko Kukihara, Niwako Yamawaki, Michiyo Ando, Yoshiko Tamura, Kumi Arita, and Emiko Nakashima

Sonstroem ( 1978 ), physical activity can improve one’s confidence and skills, such as resilience and morale, to continue physical activity. Such heightened resilience and morale may directly enable individuals to approach stressful life events with confidence and optimism. In addition, people who have

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García, and Alejandro Lucia

of Economy and Competitiveness ( Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias and Fondos FEDER , grant numbers PI15/00558 and PI18/00139 to A.L.). Valenzuela and Morales contributed equally to this work. References 1. Mata F , Valenzuela PL , Gimenez J , et al . Carbohydrate availability and

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María Trinidad Morales-Belando and José L. Arias-Estero


To determine whether a TGfU intervention improved participants’ decision-making, skill execution, game performance, game involvement, game knowledge, enjoyment, perceived competence, and intention to continue practicing sailing.


Participants were 19 sailors (age: M = 8.44, SD = 1.24 years old). This study followed a mixed-methods approach. The children participated in 12 TGfU intervention sessions and 2 prepost assessment sessions. We designed and validated the sessions, and the coach was trained in TGfU. Data were collected using GPAI during an Olympic triangle race, an ad hoc knowledge questionnaire, two psychological scales, and interviews of children and coach.


Statistically significant improvements were found in decision-making, Δ = 3.97, skill execution, Δ = .43, game performance, Δ = 5.34, and game involvement, Δ = 7.89.


The results support TGfU may serve to sail training in youth sport. Sailing coaches now have a teaching-learning framework that determines “what” and “how” the tasks must be, the feedback, and participant and coach behavior.

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María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Eva Clemente-Bosch, Isabel Peraita-Costa, Agustín Llopis-Morales, Isabel Martínez, and Agustín Llopis-González

Background: The practice of physical exercise during pregnancy has benefits for both the mother and baby. Currently, there is scientific evidence that supports the inclusion of a monitored physical activity program in the daily activities of pregnant women. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of the association between physical activity during pregnancy and the effects on the mother and the newborn. Methods: A systematic review of the literature, assessing each study using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, from different databases PubMed, Embase, or ScienceDirect, on the association between maternal physical activity and its effects on the mother and the newborn published from 2010 until 2018 was conducted. Results: About 25 studies were identified and divided into categories according to the health problems affecting the mother or newborn. It was found that 8% of all the studies received a grade B, 68% obtained a grade C, and the remaining 24% obtained less than a grade C. Improved cardiovascular function, decreased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and the limitation of weight gain are among the benefits to the mother with lower percentage of body fat, increased gestational age, and potentially improved neurodevelopment as benefits for the child. Conclusions: The realization of physical activity during pregnancy is supported by most of the studies reviewed. However, given the vulnerability of the studied populations, more studies on the association between physical activity and pregnancy are necessary.

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Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Sebastian Miranda-Marquez, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Damian Chandia-Poblete, Camila Mella-Garcia, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Astrid Von Oetinger, Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Sebastian Peña, Cristobal Cuadrado, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Celis-Morales, Antonio García-Hermoso, and Andrea Cortinez-O’Ryan

of active commuting to school and academic achievement in rural Chilean adolescents . Environ Health Prev Med . 2017 ; 22 ( 1 ): 31 . 29165126 10.1186/s12199-017-0628-5 9. Rodriguez-Rodriguez F , Cristi-Montero C , Celis-Morales C , Escobar-Gomez D , Chillon P . Impact of distance on

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Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Sebastian Miranda-Marquez, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Damian Chandia-Poblete, Camila Mella-Garcia, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Pedro Delgado-Floody, Astrid Von Oetinger, Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Sebastian Peña, Cristobal Cuadrado, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Celis-Morales, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso, and Andrea Cortínez-O’Ryan

-Rodriguez F , Cristi-Montero C , Celis-Morales C , Escobar-Gomez D , Chillon P . Impact of distance on mode of active commuting in Chilean children and adolescents . Int J Environ Res Public Health . 2017 ; 14 ( 11 ): E1334 . 10.3390/ijerph14111334 29099044 34. Cooper AR , Jago R

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, and Slobodan Jaric

This study determined the optimal resistive forces for testing muscle capacities through the standard cycle ergometer test (1 resistive force applied) and a recently developed 2-point method (2 resistive forces used for force-velocity modelling). Twenty-six men were tested twice on maximal sprints performed on a leg cycle ergometer against 5 flywheel resistive forces (R1–R5). The reliability of the cadence and maximum power measured against the 5 individual resistive forces, as well as the reliability of the force-velocity relationship parameters obtained from the selected 2-point methods (R1–R2, R1–R3, R1–R4, and R1–R5), were compared. The reliability of outcomes obtained from individual resistive forces was high except for R5. As a consequence, the combination of R1 (≈175 rpm) and R4 (≈110 rpm) provided the most reliable 2-point method (CV: 1.46%–4.04%; ICC: 0.89–0.96). Although the reliability of power capacity was similar for the R1–R4 2-point method (CV: 3.18%; ICC: 0.96) and the standard test (CV: 3.31%; ICC: 0.95), the 2-point method should be recommended because it also reveals maximum force and velocity capacities. Finally, we conclude that the 2-point method in cycling should be based on 2 distant resistive forces, but avoiding cadences below 110 rpm.

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell, and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

Purpose: To determine whether heart-rate variability (HRV) was correlated with other training-load and training-tolerance markers for monitoring the effect of a training session on elite synchronized swimmers. Methods: The authors recorded the resting HRV of 12 elite swimmers (mean age = 21.5 [3.5] y) 3 times over 1 wk with a cadence of 48 h prior to the 2015 World Swimming Championships. They continuously monitored heart rate and obtained salivary cortisol (SC) samples before and after the last training session of the week. The authors measured capillary blood lactate (La) 2, 4, and 8 min after the last training session and monitored recovery HRV. They assessed rating of perceived exertion (RPE) over the entire session and tested the association between the highest La concentration (Lapeak), SC, and RPE and relative changes (Δ%) in the natural logarithm of the root-mean-square successive difference of intervals (LnRMSSD). The authors also calculated the smallest worthwhile change of the averaged pre and post LnRMSSD measurements. Results: There were periods of pronounced bradycardia (60.5 [16.7] beats/min) during training exercises corresponding to apneic exercise. The magnitude-based inferences showed nonclinically meaningful changes of LnRMSSD. Lapeak (6.8 [2.7] mmol/L) correlated positively with Δ%LnRMSSD and Δ%SC (r = .89, P = .001 and r = .61, P = .04, respectively). Conclusions: There was no change in LnRMSSD and Lapeak, Δ%SC, and RPE indicated reduced sympathetic activation and positive adaptation to the stress imposed by the session. Isolated HRV assessment may reveal a controversial interpretation of autonomic nervous system status or the training tolerance in elite synchronized swimming athletes due to the influence of the diving response.