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Joke Simons, Siegfried Dewitte and Willy Lens

This study tested the hypothesis that the reason a person engages in a physical education activity (instrumentality) has an effect on his or her state goal orientation, time spent practicing, task enjoyment, motivation, effort, and ultimately on his/her performance. Participants, 695 college students (340 M, 355 F; mean age 19.7 years, range = 18–22) who were enrolled in physical education classes, learned a dribble-shooting basketball task. Before practicing it for 20 minutes, they received one of the three instructions underlining the personal and/or future relevance of the task. Instructions emphasizing the obligatory nature of the task led to a decrease in motivated behavior, performance, and state task orientation, but an increase in the state ego orientation. Instructions emphasizing the personal and future relevance enhanced state task orientation, motivated behavior, and performance. Instructions that only emphasized personal relevance fell in between. The results of this study showed that instructions are powerful tools that can easily affect the quality of motivation and either strengthen or undermine students’ motivational behavior, performance, and future participation, at least when students have little or no experience with the task.

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Lavon Williams and Diane L. Gill

Understanding the role of perceived competence in the motivation of sport and physical activity is an important endeavor. This study attempted to examine the role of perceived competence by (a) investigating its relationship with goal orientations as hypothesized by Nicholls’s theory of achievement motivation, and (b) testing a proposed model linking goal orientations and motivated behavior. Students (N = 174) completed questionnaires assessing goal orientations, perceived competence, intrinsic interest, and effort. Regression analyses revealed that task orientation was a good predictor of effort; however, the interaction of ego orientation and perceived competence failed to adequately predict effort. Path analysis results revealed that task goal orientation, but not ego orientation, directly influenced perceived competence, intrinsic interest, and effort. In addition, intrinsic interest played a mediating role between perceived competence and effort and between task goal orientation and effort.

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Robert J. Brustad

Youth sport research has failed to address the influential role of socialization agents in shaping children's motivational processes in sport. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the integration of socialization influences, particularly parental behaviors, into the study of children's sport motivation. The impact of socialization influences in shaping those cognitions widely regarded to influence children's sport behavior is examined. Special attention is paid to related research in academic settings that identifies the influence of parental socialization patterns upon children's self-perception characteristics, orientations toward achievement, and patterns of motivated behavior. Recommendations are made for incorporating socialization influences into youth sport research within the framework of cognitive-developmental theory.

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Lawrence R. Brawley and Kathleen A. Martin

Over the past three decades, an interface has developed between sport and social psychology, characterized primarily by commonly utilized concepts and theories. The list of social psychological benefits to sport psychology is lengthy and includes theory, hypotheses, research paradigms, general independent and dependent variables, methods, and measures. In this paper, the following areas of sport research are used to illustrate the interface between sport and social psychology: (a) social facilitation and cohesion as two social influence phenomena, (b) anxiety and goal orientations as personality moderators of social behavior, and (c) self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes as social cognitions relevant to motivated behavior. Each of these areas are discussed in terms of social psychology’s impact on its development as a line of research in sport and in terms of the recent contributions each has made in return to social psychology. The general nature of the interface of social and sport psychology is also discussed.

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Maureen R. Weiss

competence, enabling an understanding of variations in motivated behavior from early childhood to adolescence ( Horn, 2004a ; Weiss & Williams, 2004 ). Perceived autonomy/behavioral control are common sources of motivation, and refer to individuals’ feelings of volition, choice, and control in achievement

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Thelma S. Horn

. Horn , T.S. , & Newton , J.L. ( 2018 ). Developmentally-based perspectives on motivated behavior in sport and physical activity contexts . In T.S. Horn & A. Smith (Eds.). Advances in sport and exercise psychology ( 4th ed. ). Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics . Marsh , H.W. , Richards

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Maureen R. Weiss

mastery of skills (i.e., actual competence), perceptions of competence, and motivated behavior. Because these theories were derived in mainstream psychology, they are not focused exclusively on motor competence or physical activity, but rather on competence and behavior in multiple achievement domains

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Matthew O. Fullmer, Carol Wilkinson, Keven A. Prusak, Dennis Eggett and Todd Pennington

, Barney, & Wilkinson, 2016 ). Motivated behaviors, according to SDT, can be measured by an individual’s position along an intercorrelated continuum of regulation ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). At one end of this self-determination continuum is amotivation (lacking the intention toward a particular behavior), and

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Gro Jordalen, Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, Natalie Durand-Bush and Andreas Ivarsson

are enjoyable and gratifying (i.e., autonomously motivated behaviors) over activities that require effort (i.e., controlled motivated behaviors). Thus, individuals’ self-control performance is impaired as a function of changed motivation in subsequent acts of self-control. One explanation of self

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Aline Mendes Gerage, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Ana Célia Oliveira dos Santos, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de Souza and Fábio Araujo Almeida

preintervention. All the researchers involved in evaluations and data analysis were blinded regarding randomization. Behavior Change Program: VAMOS The VAMOS group participated in a behavioral change program aimed to motivate behavior changes to a healthy lifestyle regarding physical activity and nutrition