-related reasons. Achievement goal perspective theory (AGPT; Nicholls, 1989 ; Roberts, 2012 ) is one framework that has been employed in exercise psychology research to consider how to optimize individuals’ motivation in physical activity settings. Two distinct motivational climates can be created by instructors
Relationship Between Motivational Climate to Body Esteem and Social Physique Anxiety Within College Physical Activity Classes
Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry
Does Role Identity Mediate the Influence of Motivational Regulations on Physical Activity Behavior Among People 55 Years or Older?
Steve Amireault and Mary Katherine Huffman
( Baranowski et al., 2009 ; Sheeran et al., 2017 ). In this article, we investigate how role identity and motivational regulations relate to physical activity behavior among people 55 years or older (henceforth “older adults”). 1 Role identity is recognized as one of the primary drivers for behavior change
One-Year Adherence to the Otago Exercise Program With or Without Motivational Interviewing in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Marina Arkkukangas, Anne Söderlund, Staffan Eriksson, and Ann-Christin Johansson
adherence over time is often problematic due to upcoming life events. Motivational interventions addressing behavior have positive effects on health outcomes. Still, the effects on adherence or attendance to exercise programs have been sparsely studied ( McGrane, Cusack, O’Donoghue, & Stokes, 2014 ). Older
Effect of Evidence-Based Materials and Access to Local Resources on Physical Activity Levels, Beliefs, and Motivation During Pregnancy in a Rural Setting
Rachel Tinius, Kolbi Edens, Kim Link, M. Susan Jones, Scott Lyons, Tatum Rebelle, Kevin J. Pearson, and Jill Maples
, and some common reasons for not participating in PA include work-related factors, fatigue, pregnancy-related symptoms, lack of motivation, and lack of knowledge. 7 Furthermore, pregnant women report receiving little or no advice about PA during pregnancy from their health care provider, 8 – 10 and
Influence of Internal and External Controlling Teaching Behaviors on Students’ Motivational Outcomes in Physical Education: Is There a Gender Difference?
Ángel Abós, Rafael Burgueño, Luis García-González, and Javier Sevil-Serrano
& Deci, 2017 ), motivating style is a teacher’s important social contextual factor that may influence students’ motivational experiences ( Curran & Standage, 2017 ). Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between need-supportive behaviors of PE teachers and students’ motivational
Assessing Coach Motivation: The Development of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ)
Kristy N. McLean, Clifford J. Mallett, and Peter Newcombe
The aim of this research was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ). Study 1 focused on the compilation and pilot testing of potential questionnaire items. Consistent with self-determination theory, items were devised to tap into six forms of motivation: amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic motivation. The purpose of the second study (N = 556) was to empirically examine the psychometric properties of the CMQ. Items were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses to determine the fit of the a priori model. In addition, the validity of the questionnaire was assessed through links with the theoretically related concepts of intrinsic need satisfaction, well-being, and goal orientation. Together with test–retest reliability (Study 3), these results showed preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the CMQ. Finally, using an independent sample (N = 254), the fourth study confirmed the factor structure and supports the use of the CMQ in future coaching research.
Volunteer Motivations at a National Special Olympics Event
Selina Khoo and Rich Engelhorn
Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28 item Special Event Volunteer Motivation Scale. The top motivations related to the purposive incentives of wanting to help make the event a success and to do something good for the community. Factor analysis revealed a five-factor model, with the altruistic factor (purposive) being the most important. A MANCOVA was also used to compare subjects using both gender and experience as independent variables. Small but significant differences in motivation were observed.
Senior Olympians’ Achievement Goals and Motivational Responses
Maria Newton and Mary D. Fry
The purpose of this study was of examine the motivational perspectives of athletes participating in the Senior Olympic Games. One hundred thirty-seven senior athletes (54 males. 82 females, and 1 nonidentifier) completed measures of goal orientations, beliefs about the causes of success in sport, intrinsic motivation, and views about the purpose of sport. Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between task orientation and intrinsic motivation, the belief that success in sport is achieved through hard work, and self-improvement-based purposes of sport. In contrast, ego orientation was associated with the belief that success in sport is achieved by those who are gifted with natural ability and who know how to maximize external and deceptive factors. Further, ego orientation was linked to the belief that the purpose of sport was for personal gain. The motivational implications of the present findings are discussed based on the tenets of goal perspective theory.
The Motivating Role of Positive Feedback in Sport and Physical Education: Evidence for a Motivational Model
Athanasios Mouratidis, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Willy Lens, and Georgios Sideridis
Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants’ well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas amotivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.
The Relationship Among Perceived Coaching Behaviors, Perceptions of Ability, and Motivation In Competitive Age-Group Swimmers
S. Jill Black and Maureen R. Weiss
Based on Barter's competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationships between perceived coaching behaviors and (a) perceptions of ability and (b) motivation in competitive age-group swimmers. Male and female athletes (N=312) assessed their coaches' behaviors and their own ability and motivation using self-report measures. Multivariate analyses indicated that significant relationships were found for males, females, 12–14-year-olds, and 15-18-year-olds. Variables contributing most importantly to the relationships differed depending upon gender and age group. In general, coaches who were perceived as giving more frequent information following desirable performances, and more frequent encouragement combined with information following undesirable performances, were associated with athletes who perceived higher levels of success, competence, enjoyment, and preference for optimally challenging activities. These results indicate that young athletes' self-perceptions and motivation are significantly related to the quantity and quality of coaching feedback they receive for performance successes and errors.