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Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt and Ian Maynard

The purpose of this study was to explore how sport and exercise psychologists working in sport understand and use motivational interviewing (MI). Eleven practitioners participated in semistructured interviews, and inductive thematic analysis identified themes linked to explicit use of MI, such as building engagement and exploring ambivalence to change; the value of MI, such as enhancing the relationship, rolling with resistance and integrating with other approaches; and barriers to the implementation of MI in sport psychology, such as a limited evidence-base in sport. Findings also indicated considerable implicit use of MI by participants, including taking an athlete-centered approach, supporting athlete autonomy, reflective listening, demonstrating accurate empathy, and taking a nonprescriptive, guiding role. This counseling style appears to have several tenets to enhance current practice in sport psychology, not least the enhancement of therapeutic alliance.

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Kaitlin R. Lilienthal, Anna Evans Pignol, Jeffrey E. Holm and Nancy Vogeltanz-Holm

This study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for increasing physical activity in aging adults. Eighty-six participants aged 55 years and older were randomly assigned to receive either four weekly sessions of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity, or a healthy activity living guide (information only control). Changes from baseline weekly caloric expenditure from physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and stage of change for physical activity were compared across groups at posttreatment and six months follow-up. Results indicated that MI participants had higher weekly caloric expenditures from physical activity at posttreatment, but not at six months follow-up; higher self-efficacy for physical activity at six months follow-up; and demonstrated greater stage of change progression across assessments. These findings support the use of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity in older adults in the short-term. Future studies will need to determine if follow-up booster sessions increase long-term efficacy.

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Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran and Joanne Butt

interventions such as CBT can be enhanced by applying an underpinning/adjunct approach such as motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2013 ) to form an integrative MI-CBT (athlete-centered) therapy. While this integrative approach is becoming well understood and commonly applied in health settings

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Marina Arkkukangas, Anne Söderlund, Staffan Eriksson and Ann-Christin Johansson

-prevention exercise program ( Robinson, Newton, Jones, & Dawson, 2014 ). One way to address behavioral change is through motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2013 ). MI is an established method for supporting health-related behavioral change but has only been used to a limited extent with older adults

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Marina Arkkukangas, Susanna Tuvemo Johnson, Karin Hellström, Elisabeth Anens, Michail Tonkonogi and Ulf Larsson

Exercise Programme; MI = motivational interviewing. Table 1 Baseline Characteristics Characteristics OEP ( n  = 61) OEP+MI ( n  = 58) Control ( n  = 56) Total ( N  = 175) Age (years) 83.4 (5.0) 83.7 (4.1) 82.3 (4.7) 83 (4.7) Women/men 41/20 (67.2/32.8) 40/18 (69.0/31.0) 41/15 (73.2/26.8) 122/53 (69

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Jonathan Rhodes, Jon May, Jackie Andrade and David Kavanagh

“that creates a context where people are encouraged to consider the utility and possibility of functional behaviour change” (p. 259). FIT pairs the spirit of motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2012 ) with a focus on enhancing the concreteness and vividness of an individual’s goal

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Matthew P. Martens, Joanna Buscemi, Ashley E. Smith and James G. Murphy

Background:

Research has shown that many college students do not meet recommended national guidelines for physical activity. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the short-term efficacy of a brief motivational intervention (BMI) designed to increase physical activity.

Methods:

Participants were 70 college students who reported low physical activity (83% women, 60% African American). Participants were randomly assigned to either the BMI condition or to an education-only (EO) condition. They completed measures of physical activity at baseline and 1-month follow-up.

Results:

Those in the BMI condition reported more vigorous-intensity physical activity at a 1-month follow-up than those in the EO condition.

Conclusions:

The findings from this study provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a BMI designed to increase physical activity among college students. Future studies should continue to examine and refine the intervention in an effort to improve health-related behaviors among this group.

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Martin J. Turner, Gillian Aspin, Faye F. Didymus, Rory Mack, Peter Olusoga, Andrew G. Wood and Richard Bennett

to the four CBTs, two practitioners bring expertise in motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2013 ), a counseling approach presented as a valuable adjunct to CBT. The first author assembled the practitioner team by contacting prominent experts in each of the selected approaches. Once the

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JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E. Schoeny, Susan W. Buchholz, Louis Fogg, Arlene Michaels Miller, Lynne T. Braun, Shannon Halloway and Barbara L. Dancy

Background:

For interventions to be implemented effectively, fidelity must be documented. We evaluated fidelity delivery, receipt, and enactment of the 48-week Women’s Lifestyle Physical Activity Program conducted to increase physical activity and maintain weight in African American women.

Methods:

Three study conditions all received 6 group meetings; 1 also received 11 motivational interviewing personal calls (PCs), 1 received11 automated motivational message calls (ACs), and 1 received no calls. Group meeting delivery was assessed for adherence and competence. PC delivery was assessed with the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. Receipt was defined as group meeting attendance, completion of PCs, and listening to ACs. Enactment was number of weeks an accelerometer was worn.

Results:

For group meeting delivery, mean adherence was 80.8% and mean competence 2.9 of 3.0. Delivery of PCs did not reach criterion for competence. Receipt of more than one-half the dose was achieved for 84.9% of women for group meetings, 85.5% for PCs, and 42.1% for ACs. Higher group meeting attendance was associated with higher accelerometer steps at 24 weeks and lower BMI at 24 and 48 weeks.

Conclusions:

Fidelity measurement and examination of intervention delivery, receipt, and enactment are important to explicate conditions in which interventions are successful.

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John H. Kerr and Pippa Grange

This case study examined interpersonal communication in sport in the form of verbal aggression among elite athletes in the Australian Football League (AFL). It focused on the experience and motivation of athletes who use athlete-to-athlete verbal aggression and the responses of athletes who have been the targets of verbal aggression during games. In addition, the reasons athletes have for not engaging in verbal aggression were also examined. Purposive sampling procedures produced a select sample of elite male athletes known for their aggressive approach to playing Australian football. Qualitative methods and deductive analysis procedures, informed by J.H. Kerr’s categories of sport aggression, were used to interpret the interview data. Meaningful insights into verbal aggression in the AFL were obtained. Based on the underlying motivation, interview transcript descriptions of incidents were identified as examples of power, thrill, and anger verbal aggression.