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Weidong Li, Amelia M. Lee, and Melinda A. Solmon

This study was designed to explore the relationships among individuals’ dispositional ability conceptions, intrinsic motivation, experience, perceived competence, persistence, and performance. Participants practiced a novel task, completed surveys before instruction and after practicing the task, and completed a skill test. The results indicated that participants with higher levels of entity ability conceptions were likely to exert less effort and be less intrinsically motivated during practice. Participants with more experience were likely to feel more competent before and after practice. Perceived competence, incremental ability conceptions, and performance were positive predictors of intrinsic motivation. The results suggest that providing students opportunities to experience a variety of activities and creating an environment in which students can feel competent, believe in the efficacy of effort, and experience success could foster intrinsic motivation to actively engage in activities.

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Nathan Smith, Damien Tessier, Yannis Tzioumakis, Eleanor Quested, Paul Appleton, Philippe Sarrazin, Athanasios Papaioannou, and Joan L. Duda

This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda’s [2013] conceptualization of “empowering” and “disempowering” climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes’ reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.

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Vikki Krane, Jeannine Snow, and Christy A. Greenleaf

The present investigation is a qualitative case study of a former elite gymnast. The social cognitive approach to achievement motivation has been applied to understand and explain the behavior of this gymnast, her coaches, and her parents. The gymnast participated in three unstructured interviews which were grounded in a feminist view of sport and research (cf. Harding, 1991; Krane, 1994). The data analysis resulted in three dimensions: Motivational Climate, Evidence of an Ego Orientation, and Correlates of Ego Involvement. An ego-involved motivational environment was developed and reinforced by the gymnast’s coaches and parents. Her ego-involved goal orientation was revealed through her reliance on social comparison, emphasis on external feedback and rewards, need to demonstrate her superiority, and acting out behaviors in the face of adversity. This gymnast practiced and competed while seriously injured, employed unhealthy eating practices, overtrained, and refused to listen to medical advice in order to continue her quest towards the Olympic team. All of these behaviors are discussed within the framework of goal orientation theory.

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Senlin Chen and Ang Chen

Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students’ physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two healthful-living programs (i.e., combination of physical and health education) responded to measures of expectancy-value motivation, energy balance knowledge, in-class physical activity, and after-school physical activity. The structural equation modeling confirmed positive impact from expectancy beliefs and interest value to in-class physical activity (Path coefficient range from .19 to .26, ps < .01). Cost perception was found exerting a negative impact on after-school physical activity but a positive one on lower level of understanding of energy balance (Path coefficient range from -.33 to -.39, ps < .01). The findings painted a complex but meaningful picture about the motivational impact of expectancy-value constructs on physical activity and energy balance knowledge. School healthful-living programs should create motivational environments that strengthen students’ expectancy beliefs and interest value and alleviate their negative perceptions and experiences.

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani, and Jennie E. Hancox

). Although many adults initiate a fitness regime more than once in their life, few sustain this behavior consistently or for the long term; about 50% drop out within the first 6 months ( Marcus et al., 2006 ). Numerous studies have highlighted the important role of the motivational environment created by the

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

emphasis on a task-involving rather than an ego-involving climate will be more likely to report being mindful in their daily lives. A third aspect of the motivational environment that has been introduced in the last decade is the caring climate, which is defined as a climate that is “interpersonally

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Rafael Burgueño, José Macarro-Moreno, Isabel Sánchez-Gallardo, María-Jesús Lirola, and Jesús Medina-Casaubón

at a particular motivational risk and to facilitate consequently the selection of aspects for the improvement of PE programs and the creation of motivational environments to promote sportsmanship orientation in particular and the optimal development of students’ affective domain in general. As a

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David Sánchez-Oliva, Antonio L. Palmeira, Eliana V. Carraça, Pedro J. Teixeira, David Markland, and Marlene N. Silva

− profile; whereas, perceived need-frustrating environments were associated with a higher probability of belonging to the NS− profile. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the motivational environment within the work context and its implications for the motivational practices developed by

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Tan Zhang, Anqi Deng, and Ang Chen

important condition that leads to the incapability of transfer from declarative to procedural ( Renkl et al., 1996 ). The second condition underlines the importance of motivational factors in transferring knowledge to action. In a “cold motivational environment” characteristic of having knowledge but low

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Jorge Zamarripa, René Rodríguez-Medellín, and Fernándo Otero-Saborido

education system and for every person in a position of influence (e.g., teachers) whose role is to prompt others into acting ( Ryan & Deci, 2000c ), especially given that the teachers’ actions can create motivational environments that facilitate the development of high-quality motivation and promote