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Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Gill Lewin, Simone Pettigrew, Anne-Marie Hill, Phil Airey, Liz Bainbridge and Keith D. Hill

Regular participation in resistance training is important for older people to maintain their health and independence, yet participation rates are low. The study aimed to identify motivators and barriers to older people participating in resistance training. A systematic review was conducted including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies. Searches generated 15,920 citations from six databases, with 14 studies (n = 1,937 participants) included. In total, 92 motivators and 24 barriers were identified. Motivators specific to participating in resistance training included preventing deterioration (disability), reducing risk of falls, building (toning) muscles, feeling more alert, and better concentration. Looking too muscular and thinking participation increased the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or death, despite the minimal likelihood of these occurring, were barriers. The analysis indicates that increasing participation in resistance training among older people should focus on the specific benefits valued by older people and the dissemination of accurate information to counter misperceptions.

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Karl Spiteri, David Broom, Amira Hassan Bekhet, John Xerri de Caro, Bob Laventure and Kate Grafton

sport or strength training, or unstructured, such as while doing household chores. The determinants of PA differ depending on the type of activity ( Koeneman, Verheijden, Chinapaw, & Hopman-Rock, 2011 ). Previous systematic reviews have identified the barriers and motivators toward PA or exercise

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Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer

-Tilaki & Heidari, 2006 ). This highlights the need for women to be supported in increasing their PA levels. In order to develop optimal PA interventions, it is important to identify the barriers and motivators to engage in PA. Typically, individuals who perceive more exercise benefits and fewer exercise barriers

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Breiffni Leavy and Anna Cristina Åberg

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the perceptions of physical activity held by older urban Swedish and Irish adults. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 30 people age 65 years and older (mean age 74.5), of whom 15 were living in Dublin and 15 were living in Stockholm. The “thematic framework” approach was used to analyze the data. Three central themes were identified regarding people’s perceptions of physical activity: physical activity as self-expression, physical activity as interaction, and physical activity as health promotion. Participants’ perceptions of physical activity tended to relate to their perceived level of physical activity, regardless of their cultural background. Certain culture-specific motivators and barriers to exercise were also identified. Less active Irish men were more likely to underestimate the health-promoting benefits of exercise.

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Simone Pettigrew, Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Anne-Marie Hill, Liz Bainbridge, Gill Lewin, Phil Airey and Keith Hill

( Andreasson et al., 2016 ; Bethancourt, Rosenberg, Beatty, & Arterburn, 2014 ; Lübcke, Martin, & Hellström, 2012 ; Rydeskog et al., 2005 ). The aim of this study was to contribute to this limited body of work by identifying and explicating the barriers and motivators relevant to Australian seniors

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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, Alexandra J. Rankin-Wright and Sergio Lara-Bercial

experiences as departure points ( Stodter & Cushion, 2016 ). However, to the best of our knowledge, previous research has to date paid limited attention to the impact of CDs’ demeanour and personal behaviours as mediators of coaches’ commitment to CED programmes and motivators for lifelong learning. Given

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Jennifer L. Etnier, William B. Karper, Se-Yun Park, Chia-Hao Shih, Aaron T. Piepmeier and Laurie Wideman

As a population, middle-aged and older adults are not meeting national guidelines for exercise. The purpose of this study was to describe factors associated with exercise adherence in an 8-month program offered as part of a research study testing the effects of exercise on cognitive performance for persons with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). After completion of the program, participants provided open-ended responses indicating their reasons for adhering to the exercise program, and they completed the Motives for Physical Activities Measure-Revised. Results indicated that adherence was tied to an interest in contributing to our understanding of AD, the opportunity to join an exercise program, perceived exercise benefits, and social support. In addition, participants reported high levels of extrinsic (fitness-related) and intrinsic (interest/enjoyment) motivation. Other possible motivating factors which emerged from day-to-day observations in the program were identified. Findings suggest directions for exercise professionals with respect to exercise adherence.

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Paul G. Campbell, Domhnall MacAuley, Evelyn McCrum and Alun Evans

Different people exercise for different reasons. Older persons may have different priorities than younger ones and thus are motivated to exercise by different factors. Given the changing demographics with an increasing proportion of older adults in the general population, it is important that we do not overlook this cohort when designing health promotion and illness prevention programs. Motivating factors for physical activity were recorded by participants (N = 916) in the Northern Ireland Health and Activity Survey (1994) using an extensive computerized interview. In 10 of the 13 motivating factors for exercise studied, there were significant differences between age groups on the importance of personal goals and the perceived efficacy of exercise in achieving these goals. This has implications for exercise promotion programs.

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Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Marcia S. Marx and Jack M. Guralnik

This study aimed to ascertain perceived barriers and motivators to exercise in people age 74–85 and to clarify the meaning of these barriers and motivators by examining participant characteristics that relate to them. 324 community-dwelling participants age 74–85 completed a health questionnaire that included items on barriers and motivators to exercise, as well as questions on demographic variables, health, and exercise. Selected participants then completed a physical-performance battery to measure functional performance. Barriers and motivators were related internally, as well as to many other factors including pain and depressed affect on the Geriatric Depression Scale. The findings suggest a need for individualized and comprehensive approaches to the presentation of exercise programs. Health interventions are needed that will address both physical pain and depressed affect and explain the importance of exercise even in the presence of health problems. An understanding of the context of reported barriers and motivators is necessary for correct interpretation and program development.

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Yu Kyoum Kim and Galen Trail

This study focused on developing a model to explain relationships among constraints, motivators, and attendance, and empirically test the proposed model within the spectator sport context. The proposed model explained 34% of variance in Attendance. Results showed that Attachment to the Team, an internal motivator, entered first and explained approximately 21% of the variance in attendance. Lack of Success, an internal constraint, entered next and explained almost 10% additional variance. Leisure Alternatives, an external constraint entered next and explained an additional 3%. The ability to properly evaluate constraints and motivators gives sport marketers the opportunity to more effectively serve existing fans, as well as attract new fans.