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A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver

developments in the field of motor behavior research over the last 10–15 years. Our intention is to highlight some of the most significant and impactful empirical work conducted in the field and to highlight novel and emerging areas for future research. The task of identifying areas of study that have been the

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Greg Reid

Four types of motor behavior research that include special populations are described. These research areas are descriptive, program effectiveness, theory generalization, and theory construction. In addition, three levels of applied and basic research outlined by Christina (in press) are described and juxtaposed to the four types of motor behavior research. Current trends and potential areas of inquiry are highlighted in each. In particular, Christina’s Level 2 applied research is considered attractive for adapted physical activity researchers, as it is theory-driven with relevant tasks and fiinctional settings and may therefore contribute to a growing professional literature.

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Greg Reid

Physical activity participation of persons with disabilities might be enhanced by careful application of motor behavior research to instructional settings. However, it is argued that this research is not easily stated in terms that are useful to practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between theoretical research and practice, and to suggest research strategies that will translate findings into helpful information for instruction. A number of applied research strategies are proposed, intended to gradually move from laboratory-inspired problems to issues applicable in typical instructional settings. These strategies include a clear conceptual rationale for including people with disabilities in the research, task modifications, a powerful initial study, replications, investigating interactions, conducting comparative studies, modifying the unit of analysis, generalization, and instructional considerations.

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Richard C. Noel

The effect of visuo-motor behavioral rehearsal (VMBR) training on tennis service performance during a tournament was investigated with 14 male tennis players. Seven participants were trained in relaxation I0 days before a major tournament, and then given a. relaxation and visualization audiocassette tape to use on a daily basis prior to the tournament. The visualization part of the tape led them to imagine themselves performing in their first tournament match, and guided them in repetitive practice on their serves. Seven other participants also competed in the tournament but did not receive the VMBR training. The higher ability training group achieved a marginally significant improvement in their percentage of good first serves, while the lower ability training group declined in their accuracy. Overall performance, as measured by their ratio of winners to errors, also favored the higher ability training group. Possible explanations of the results are discussed in terms of the interaction between the training program and the type of performer.

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Jerry R. Thomas, Karen E. French and Charlotte A. Humphries

In this paper we propose that research in motor behavior has failed to meet the obligation of studying how children learn important sport skills. In particular, understanding the specific sport knowledge base is essential to studying skilled sport behavior. To support this view we review the research in the cognitive area relative to the development of expertise. We then attempt to justify why a similar approach is useful for motor behavior researchers and why they should undertake the study of sport skill acquisition. Finally, we offer a paradigm within which sport skill research might take place.

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Robert Kertzer, Ron Croce, Richard Hinkle and Collette Janson-Sand

Few studies have investigated the fitness levels of children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), with no data presently available on such children’s level of motor proficiency. The present investigation was prompted by this lack of information. Twenty-one girls (mean age = 11.0 years, range = 7-14) and 23 boys (mean age =11.5 years, range = 8-15) with IDDM were tested on selected fitness and motor behavior parameters. Results indicated that children and adolescents with IDDM follow similar fitness and motor behavior profiles of their nondiabetic peers: Boys tended to be in better physical condition than girls of similar ages, particularly in the 12-15 year range. In the areas of body composition and abdominal strength/endurance, subjects displayed values below those obtained in studies of nondiabetic subjects. Subjects’ scores on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency for each age grouping were relatively high, indicating that children and adolescents with IDDM need not have diminished psychomotor skills.

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Bradley D. Hatfield

superior performer and the concept of psychomotor efficiency ( Hatfield & Hillman, 2001 ; Hatfield & Kerick, 2007 ). So, what is psychomotor efficiency? Based on the basic formula that efficiency = work/effort, psychomotor efficiency can be conceived as motor behavior/neural resource allocation. More

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy and Pamela J. Bryden

feedback in the development of reaching . Journal of Motor Behavior, 11 ( 3 ), 189 – 200 . PubMed doi:10.1080/00222895.1979.10735187 10.1080/00222895.1979.10735187 Heath , M. , Westwood , D.A. , Roy , E.A. , & Young , R.P. ( 2002 ). Manual asymmetries in tool-use: Implications for apraxia

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Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts and Nathalie A. Roussel

only seven workshops on the motor behavior of novice performers. The workshops focused on using the body’s qualities (such as gait pattern) creating a specific image. Specific imaginary techniques have proven their efficiency concerning motor control adaptations when they are used to change the moving

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Kathye E. Light and Waneen W. Spirduso

Unlike stimulus–response compatibility, which has been explored for aging effects, the motor behavior issue of response–response (R–R) compatibility has not been addressed in the gerontological literature. R–R compatibility refers to the ease with which two responses can be prepared together either simultaneously or as choice alternatives. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adult female subjects were tested in a two-choice reaction-time (RT) paradigm involving four types of finger movements paired in every possible choice combination, creating different levels of R–R compatibility. Significant age differences increased as R–R compatibility decreased. The practical significance of this study is to establish R–R compatibility as an important factor influencing task difficulty to which older adults are particularly sensitive and to encourage recognition of this factor when prescribing progressive motor-skill training in elderly clients.