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Xiangli Gu, Katherine Thomas Thomas and Yu-Lin Chen


Guided by Stodden et al.’s (2008) conceptual model, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations among perceived competence, actual motor competence (MC), physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness in elementary children. The group differences were also investigated as a function of MC levels.


A correlational research design was used in this study. There were 262 children (Mage = 10.87, SD = .77) recruited from three schools in the southern U.S. Students’ MC was objectively measured based on a process-oriented assessment (PE Metrics, NASPE, 2010). Students self-reported perceived competence and leisure-time PA. Then, the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and pedometers were used to measure students’ cardiorespiratory fitness and in-class PA, respectively.


The structural equation modeling analysis supported the significant indirect effect of the MC on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA through perceived competence. The MANCOVA yielded a significant main effect for MC groups after controlling for sex [Wilks’s Lambda = .838, F = 12.15 (4, 251), p < .001, η2 = .16]. Regardless of sex, children with low MC demonstrated lower perceived competence, PA, and cardiorespiratory fitness compared with children with higher MC (p < .001).


Development of students’ competence beliefs in PE and certain movement patterns should be emphasized, especially during middle childhood. High quality PE programs must be aligned with national standards, with particular attention to enhancing skill acquisition (standard 1) and PE-motivation (i.e., perceived competence; standard 5).

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Matthias O. Wagner, E. Kipling Webster and Dale A. Ulrich

The Test of Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition (TGMD-3) is a process-oriented fundamental movement skill assessment to examine the movement patterns displayed by children between the ages of 3 and 10 years. Within this paper, results of a pilot study on the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance across gender of the TGMD-3 (German translation) are presented. In total, performances of 189 typically developing children (99 boys, 90 girls, 56 kindergarten children, 133 elementary school children, M age = 7.15 ± 2.02 years) are analyzed. Results provide preliminary evidence for test-retest, interrater and intrarater reliability, internal consistency, age- and gender- specific performance trends, factorial validity, measurement invariance across gender, divergent validity, and ball skill–related concurrent and predictive validity of the TGMD-3 (German translation). Subsequent research should be focused on a verification of the present findings on a representative database to foster the application of the TGMD-3 (German translation) in different settings.

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Job Fransen, Dieter Deprez, Johan Pion, Isabel B Tallir, Eva D’Hondt, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir and Renaat M. Philippaerts

The goal of this study was to investigate differences in physical fitness and sports participation over 2 years in children with relatively high, average, and low motor competence. Physical fitness and gross motor coordination of 501 children between 6–10 years were measured at baseline and baseline+2 years. The sample compromised 2 age cohorts: 6.00–7.99 and 8.00–9.99 years. An age and sex-specific motor quotient at baseline testing was used to subdivide these children into low (MQ < P33), average (P33 ≤ MQ < P66) and high (MQ ≥ P66) motor competence groups. Measures of sports participation were obtained through a physical activity questionnaire in 278 of the same children. Repeated Measures MANCOVA and two separate ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in changes in physical fitness and measures of sports participation respectively. Children with high motor competence scored better on physical fitness tests and participated in sports more often. Since physical fitness levels between groups changed similarly over time, low motor competent children might be at risk for being less physically fit throughout their life. Furthermore, since low motor competent children participate less in sports, they have fewer opportunities of developing motor abilities and physical fitness and this may further prevent them from catching up with their peers with an average or high motor competence.

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

relationship between physical activity participation and gross motor competency may be bi-directional ( Barnett, Van Beurden, Morgan, Brooks, & Beard, 2009 ), with active youth more likely to be competent in gross motor skills, and youth who are competent in gross motor skills more likely to participate in

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

qualitative criteria for form and continuity of action at each level. The average scores from two research assistants were calculated to determine motor competency. According to the recommendations of national grade-level motor competence outcomes ( SHAPE America, 2014 ), each skill performance scored in

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Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason and Christopher J. Nightingale

basic motor competencies in primary school-aged children . Journal of Sport and Health Science . Manuscript in preparation. 30719385 Herrmann , C. , & Seelig , H. ( 2017a ). Basic motor competencies of fifth graders: Construct validity of the MOBAK-5 test instrument and determinants . German

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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun and Timothy A. Brusseau

test for gross motor development—third edition (TGMD-3) was the instrument used to assess gross motor skills. Psychometric properties of the TGMD-3 have been recently reported with high levels of reliability and validity. 25 , 26 The TGMD-3 assesses gross motor competency across 13 movement skills

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Dimitrios Aivazidis, Fotini Venetsanou, Nikolaos Aggeloussis, Vassilios Gourgoulis and Antonis Kambas

sedentary time. 27 – 30 Among the factors that are associated with PA in preschool settings, children’s characteristics seem to be important; boys, older children, and motor competent children are more active than girls, younger children, and less motor competent children, respectively. 31 , 32

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John Cairney, Tia Kiez, E. Paul Roetert and Dean Kriellaars

become both sensitive and deft. (p. 325) This clearly identified that physical literacy was much more than just the development of competency of fundamental land-based movement skills. Although the core of his description was motor competency, he articulated that creativity, imagination, versatility, and

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Ayoub Asadi, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Esmaeel Saemi and Jared M. Porter

, 2005 ; Wu, & Magill, 2011 ). Previous research on this topic concludes that self-controlled practice enhances performance because it elevates motivation and facilitates feelings of autonomy and motor competency relative to environments in which the mover does not have control over some aspect of the