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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi and Adam S. Lepley

muscle during voluntary contractions. 15 Theoretically, by increasing the motor cortex excitability with direct electrical stimulation, there should have been an increase in muscular activation or strength immediately after the tDCS was delivered due to the increased activity of the alpha motor neurons

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Katherine G. Holste, Alia L. Yasen, Matthew J. Hill and Anita D. Christie

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a cognitive task on motor cortex excitability and inhibition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex was performed on 20 healthy individuals (18–24 years; 9 females) to measure motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and cortical silent periods at baseline, during, and following a secondary cognitive task. The MEP amplitude increased from 0.50 ± 0.09–0.87 ± 0.50 mV during a secondary cognitive task (p = .04), and returned to baseline (0.48 ± 0.31 mV; p = .90) posttask. The CSP duration also increased from 93.48 ± 28.76–113.6 ± 33.68 ms (p = .001) during the cognitive task, and returned to baseline posttask (89.0 ± 6.9 ms; p = .88). In the presence of a cognitive task, motor cortex excitability and inhibition were both increased relative to baseline. The increase in inhibition may help to explain the motor deficits experienced while performing a secondary cognitive task.

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Paulo H.C. Mesquita, Emerson Franchini, Marco A. Romano-Silva, Guilherme M. Lage and Maicon R. Albuquerque

supraspinal fatigue. 4 Supraspinal fatigue is related to changes in motor cortex excitability, and together with peripheral mechanisms, participates in muscle fatigue. For this reason, interventions that increase M1 excitability might increase the output from M1, consequently delaying the development of

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

, supraspinal fatigue) with subsequent decrease in spinal motorneuron excitability also play a pivotal role. 1 , 2 In this context, increasing motor cortex excitability by means of noninvasive brain stimulation has been suggested to enhance physical and mental performance. 3 Together with transcranial magnetic

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Elizabeth L. Stegemöller, Joshua R. Tatz, Alison Warnecke, Paul Hibbing, Brandon Bates and Andrew Zaman

– 1169 . doi:10.1002/mds.22535 10.1002/mds.22535 Stupacher , J. , Hove , M.J. , Novembre , G. , Schütz-Bosbach , S. , & Keller , P.E. ( 2013 ). Musical groove modulates motor cortex excitability: A TMS investigation . Brain and Cognition, 82 ( 2 ), 127 – 136 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181c6c22c 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181c6c22c Lewis , G.N. , Hume , P.A. , Stavric , V. , Brown , S.R. , & Taylor , D. ( 2017 ). New Zealand rugby health study: Motor cortex excitability in retired elite and community level rugby players . The New Zealand Medical Journal

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János Négyesi, Menno P. Veldman, Kelly M.M. Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi and Tibor Hortobágyi

). ‘Direct’ and ‘crossed’ modulation of human motor cortex excitability following exercise . Neuroscience Letters, 216 ( 2 ), 97 – 100 . PubMed Broeks , J.G. , Lankhorst , G.J. , Rumping , K. , & Prevo , A.J. ( 1999 ). The long-term outcome of arm function after stroke: Results of a follow