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Jane E. Clark

How we understand the emergence and development of motor behavior and skillfulness has itself developed over the last 50 years. In reflecting on the history of motor development, it is important to recognize that these ‘reflections’ are much like the painter’s “pentimento.” That is, the ‘canvas’ we paint today of what our science was decades ago is actually a painting with many layers—each representing where our views have changed along the journey. I do not “repent” with these reflections, as suggested by the term, pentimento, but rather I seek to bring a developmental perspective to our scientific inquiries into motor development with an element of a revisionist’s approach. What were the key discoveries and the seminal papers that influenced our canvas of motor development that we view today? Almost three decades ago, we (Clark & Whitall, 1989) outlined an historical framework for the field of motor development. Today, we can look back at that framework and the ensuing science and consider where we have been and what we have learned and ask: What does the pentimento of our motor development canvas reveal?

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Nadia C. Valentini, Larissa W. Zanella and E. Kipling Webster

The Test of Gross Motor Development is used to identify children’s level of motor proficiency, specifically to detect motor delays. This study aimed to translate the TGMD-3 items and assess reliability and content and construct validity for the TGMD-3 in Brazil. A cross-cultural translation was used to generate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the TGMD-3. The validation process involved 33 professionals and 597 Brazilian children (ages 3–10) from the five main geographic regions of Brazil. The results confirmed language clarity and pertinence, as well as face validity of the TGMD-3. High intrarater (.60 to .90) and interrater (.85 to .99) reliability was evident, and test-retest temporal stability was confirmed (locomotor .93; ball skills .81). Adequate internal consistency was present for the skills-to-test and subtests correlations (TGMD-3-BR: α .74; locomotor skills: α .63; ball skills: α .76) and performance-criteria-to-test and -subtest correlations (TGMD-3: α .93; locomotor skills: .90; ball skills: .88). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of a two-factor model (RMSEA = .04, 90% confidence interval: .03 to .05; CFI = .94; NFI = .91; TLI = .92; GFI = .94; AGFI = .92). The TGMD-3 is a valid and reliable instrument for Brazilian children.

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Nancy Getchell, Nadja Schott and Ali Brian

development is the importance of change . When studying human motor development, researchers focus on the process of change over time that occurs as a function of complex interactions among biological, environmental, social, and experiential (among other) systems ( Clark & Whitall, 1989 ). Whether occurring

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Leah E. Robinson

Motor development is part of a scientific field that includes motor learning and control, sport and exercise psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, physical education, and other kinesiology-related domains, that study factors and mechanisms that affect human movement and “physical activity

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Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma and Viviene A. Temple

The Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) has been one of the most widely used process-orientated measures of motor skill proficiency, with more than 1,000 citations in the international literature since it was published. Attaching meaning to raw TGMD-2 scores has

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Priscila Tamplain, E. Kipling Webster, Ali Brian and Nadia C. Valentini

Motor development is defined as the changes in motor behavior over the lifespan and the process(es) which underlie these changes ( Clark & Whitall, 1989 ). With that, one of the most prominent questions resultant from the 1989 Motor Development Special Issue published in Quest is “how” to assess

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David I. Anderson

The decade of research in motor development between 2007 and 2017 has reminded us of the centrality of movement in all human endeavors. This centrality has in turn reminded us that learning to move has implications for development that extend well beyond the motor domain. Tellingly, much of the

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa

Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS are often subdivided into include object control (now referred to in the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 [TGMD-3] as ball skills) and locomotor skills ( Gallahue, Ozumn

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Jane E. Clark, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott and Jill Whitall

of analysis, which includes motor behavior. But such was not always the case. At the turn of the last century, motor development was studied, but as a window into the infant’s mind, not as an integral part of a developing behavior “system.” In the present paper, we examine how this transformation in

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Esther Casas, Arturo Justes and Carlos Calvo

innovative exercises based on motor development, this study shows electromyographically the change in activity of antagonistic muscle groups and what happens when introducing potential facilitators. Developmental positions may be a useful component of rehabilitation and training programs to address the right