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Tomoko Aoki, Hayato Tsuda and Hiroshi Kinoshita

Guang ( 2001 ) indicated weaker handgrip force for older adults than for young adults. Thus, a number of studies for older adults have reported declines in hand dexterity and strength. However, there are few quantitative methods available for measuring age-related changes in finger motor function. Some

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John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel

The principal findings of this study were that a 4-week progressive IFM home exercise program resulted in improvements in clinician-assessed motor function and decreased perceived difficulty during the exercises, but had no significant effect on IFM muscle activation measured using USI during the toe

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Weimo Zhu

To make scores from tests designed for special populations exchangeable, the tests must first be equated on the same scale. This study examined the utility of a Rasch model in equating motor function tasks. Using an existing gross motor function data set and a semisimulation design, an artificial equating and cross-validation sample, as well as two artificial tests, were created. Based on these samples and tests, the accuracy and stability of Rasch equating was empirically determined using a standardized difference statistic. It was found that Rasch equating could accurately equate tests and was generalizable when applied to a cross-validation sample. After equating, tests can be compared on the same scale, and interpretation of cross-test scores becomes possible. In addition, with the conversion table and graph generated from Rasch equating, the application of test equating was demonstrated as simple and practical.

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Marco Tramontano, Alessandra Medici, Marco Iosa, Alessia Chiariotti, Giulia Fusillo, Leonardo Manzari and Daniela Morelli

Background:

Cerebral palsy (CP) has been defined as a nonprogressive disease of movement and posture development. Physical therapy techniques use different forms of sensory stimulation to improve neuromotor development.

Aim:

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a vestibular stimulation training in improving motor functions in cerebral palsy.

Population:

Fourteen children with CP were randomly separated into two different groups in a cross-over trial.

Methods:

Over a period of 10 weeks, each group performed 10 sessions of 50 min of neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) and 10 sessions of vestibular training (VR). Children were evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measurement-88 scale, the Goal Attainment Scale and the root mean square of head accelerations.

Results:

A significant improvement in the GAS-score (p = .003) was noted after NDT+VR.

Conclusions:

Vestibular stimulation integrated with NDT proved to be an effective complementary strategy for facilitating motor functioning.

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Miriam Getz, Yeshayahu Hutzler and Adri Vermeer

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Fourty- nine children with neuro-motor impairments ages 3 to 7 participated in the study. Pearson correlations were applied to determine the relationships between the AIM and the GMFM, PEDI, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Significant correlations were found between the total AIM and GMFM scores (r = 69, p < .01) and PEDI self-care sub-scale (r = .79, p < .01) as well as the PEDI mobility sub-scale scores (r = .35, p < .05). The water adjustment sub-scale as measured by the AIM showed the strongest relationship to motor performance on land as measured by the GMFM and PEDI in our sample of 49 children.

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Takashi Kamijo and Masami Murakami

Background:

Lifestyle-related diseases among middle-age and elderly people have become serious problems. Underlying causes might be related to the changes in the lifestyle including the absence of regular physical exercise.

Methods:

To clarify the significance of regular physical exercise to prevent lifestyle-related diseases, we studied motor functions and blood chemistry examinations in middle-age and elderly women (over 40 years old) who performed regular physical exercise for 2 years (exercise group) and those who initially did not (control group).

Results:

In study 1, VO2max significantly increased in the exercise group compared with the control group in the under 60 years old groups. In the over 60 years old groups, VO2max, foot balance, and HDL-cholesterol significantly increased. Plasma glucose at 120 minutes after the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) significantly decreased in the exercise group compared with the control group. In study 2, a 1-year exercise program significantly improved physical functions and biochemical markers in the control group.

Conclusion:

These results suggest that regular physical exercise might help to maintain sound motor functions and decrease insulin resistance and a risk for arteriosclerosis.

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Motohide Miyahara

The purpose of this study was to identify possible subtypes of students with learning disabilities based upon gross motor functions. Subjects in a private school for learning difficulties were divided into a group of students with learning disabilities and a comparison group. Gross motor subtests from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Bruininks, 1978) were administered to both learning-disabled and comparison groups. The four subtypes yielded by the K-means iterative partitioning method demonstrated distinct profiles. Cluster membership was shown to be fairly stable by internal validation techniques. The external validity of the four subtypes was verified by a teacher’s ratings of students’ physical behaviors. It was recommended that the outcome of type-specific remediation and the longitudinal stability of gross motor subtypes be evaluated.

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Simona Bar-Haim, Ronit Aviram, Anat Shkedy Rabani, Akram Amro, Ibtisam Nammourah, Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Yoav Raanan, Jack A. Loeppky and Netta Harries

, 38 ). The effectiveness of physical intervention programs in improving HPA (including reducing sedentary time) in this population is not well documented and the relationship between changes in motor function and HPA by interventions requires further evaluation. Bania et al ( 5 ) reviewed studies

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Anne Sofie B. Malling, Bo M. Morberg, Lene Wermuth, Ole Gredal, Per Bech and Bente R. Jensen

designed to detect changes in specific motor functions, and it has been recommended to be accompanied by fine-grained objective measures when specific motor skills are assessed in interventional and cross-sectional studies ( Malling & Jensen, 2016 ). The disease-specific Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire

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János Négyesi, Menno P. Veldman, Kelly M.M. Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi and Tibor Hortobágyi

, Hallett, Zijdewind, & Hortobágyi, 2014 ). Indeed, low-intensity (below motor threshold or eliciting paresthesia) somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) alone or added to MP can enhance stroke patients’ motor function ( Conforto, Kaelin-Lang, & Cohen, 2002 ; Wu, Seo, & Cohen, 2006 ). Although