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Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts and Nathalie A. Roussel

, sports, and so on) can be influenced by training. However, in contrast to athletes or dancers, the training methods of theater performers usually do not take the principles of motor learning into account. Rather, they are trained by theater pedagogues or other performers who follow their own empirical

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Stephen R. Bested, Gerome A. Manson and Luc Tremblay

on motor learning remains underwhelming outside of the context of simple aiming tasks. In contrast, error amplification during robotic guidance has yielded results that seem to be relatively permanent (e.g.,  Marchal-Crespo et al., 2014 ; Williams et al., 2016 ). For example, Williams et

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Keith Lohse, Taylor Buchanan and Matthew Miller

Appropriate statistical analysis is essential for accurate and reliable research. Statistical practices have an immediate impact on the perceived results of a single study but also remote effects on the dissemination of information among scientists and the cumulative nature of research. To accurately quantify potential problems facing the field of motor learning, we systematically reviewed publications from seven journals over the past 2 years to find experiments that tested the effects of different training conditions on delayed retention and transfer tests (i.e., classic motor learning paradigms). Eighteen studies were included. These studies had small sample sizes (Mdn n/group = 11.00, interquartile range [IQR]= 9.6–15.5), multiple dependent variables (Mdn = 2, IQR = 2–4), and many statistical tests per article (Mdn = 83.5, IQR = 55.8–112.5). The observed effect sizes were large (d = 0.71, IQR = 0.49, 1.11). However, the distribution of effect sizes was biased, t(16) = 3.48, p < .01. These metadata indicate problems with the way motor learning research is conducted (or at least published). We recommend several potential solutions to address these issues: a priori power calculations, prespecified analyses, data sharing, and dissemination of null results. Furthermore, we hope these data will spark serious action from all stakeholders (researchers, editorial boards, and publishers) in the field.

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Ramesh Kaipa, Michael Robb and Richard Jones

In this experiment, we investigated the role of practice variability (constant versus variable practice) and practice schedule (random versus blocked practice) on spatial and temporal learning of a speech task as a function of aging. The participants were 80 healthy individuals (40–80 years) with no history of cognitive, sensory, or motor disorders. A median split was performed to divide the participants into older and younger groups. The median split was at 59 years of age, thus placing 40 participants in each age group. The participants were assigned to one of four practice groups and practiced a nonmeaningful phrase for two consecutive days. On the third day, the participants reproduced the speech phrase without practice. Data analysis revealed that older participants involved in constant practice demonstrated superior temporal learning of the speech task over participants on variable practice. Older participants on random practice demonstrated better spatial learning of the speech task than did participants on blocked practice. In contrast, there was no effect of practice conditions on spatial and temporal learning outcomes in the younger group. The findings indicate that practice variability and practice schedule influence different aspects of a complex speech-motor learning task among older adults but not among younger adults.

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Anderson Nascimento Guimarães, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Juliana Bayeux Dascal, Alessandra Beggiato Porto and Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki

.7326/0003-4819-151-4-200908180-00135 Newell , K.M. , & Vaillancourt , D.E. ( 2001 ). Dimensional change in motor learning . Human Movement Science, 20 ( 4 ), 695 – 715 . doi:10.1016/S0167-9457(01)00073-2 10.1016/S0167-9457(01)00073-2 Newell , K.M. , & van Emmerik , R.E.A. ( 1989 ). The acquisition of coordination: Preliminary

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Sachi Ikudome, Kou Kou, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori and Hiroki Nakamoto

It is a common goal of all athletes to attain a higher level of performance. Therefore, it is important to understand whether a practice strategy that is known to have a positive effect on the acquisition of motor skills is equally effective for everyone. In the field of motor learning, several

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Jence A. Rhoads, Marcos Daou, Keith R. Lohse and Matthew W. Miller

is thought to occur explicitly, and is frequently indexed by determining how many facts can be recalled; in the case of motor learning, these facts are about the skill being learned. Interestingly, declarative knowledge may cause motor learning to occur in an inefficient manner, whereby the learned

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Dagmar Linnhoff, Shahab Alizadeh, Nina Schaffert and Klaus Mattes

, appropriate sound mapping strategies have to be developed ( Brock, Schmitz, Baumann, & Effenberg, 2012 ). The question of feedback effectiveness within gait therapy strongly relates to motor control and motor learning theory. The influence of different feedback entities such as valence, frequency and type, on

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Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp and Bert Steenbergen

participation in sports, physical activity, and activities of daily living. In this respect, it is increasingly recognized that motor learning interventions should be tailored to the children’s individual motor and cognitive abilities and constraints ( Chow, Davids, Button, & Renshaw, 2015 ). At present

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Paul R. Surburg

Problems encountered by researchers conducting motor learning studies with special populations are the central focus of this paper. The sequence of topical coverage follows a progression that would be encountered by researchers as they develop and conduct research studies. For each problem or issue identified, a suggestion is provided to help researchers cope with these problems. The following topics are examined: development of an appropriate problem, selection of a handicapping condition, determination of dependent variables, utilization of correct experimental protocols, evaluation of project design, and assessment of data.