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André Klostermann, Ralf Kredel and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

to be related to superior motor performance on an interindividual as well as on an intraindividual level. Experienced athletes show longer QE durations than less experienced athletes, and likewise, successful attempts are related to longer QE durations than unsuccessful attempts (for an overview, see

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Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri

performance, the role of visual illusions on motor performance and learning have only been examined in novice performers (e.g.,  Cañal-Bruland et al., 2016 ; Chauvel et al., 2015 ; Witt et al., 2012 ). No research has examined the role of enhancing expectancies through visual illusion in highly skilled

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Lena Hübner, Solveig Vieluf, Ben Godde and Claudia Voelcker-Rehage

(cardiovascular/motor) fitness, determine fine motor control, rate of improvement, and motor learning in OA. Effects of Age on Fine Motor Performance, Rate of Improvement, and Learning In previous studies assessing fine motor performance in OA during unimanual force modulation (FM) tasks with a sinusoidal force

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Reza Abdollahipour, Ludvík Valtr and Gabriele Wulf

According to the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning ( Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016 ), three factors are key to optimal motor performance and learning. Two of these factors are motivational in nature (enhanced expectancies

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Christine M. King and John M. Dunn

The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of classroom teachers in observing students’ motor performance. In order to assess teacher accuracy in rating motor performance, an analysis was conducted on students’ scores on the Short Form of the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-S) between those who were rated high as compared to those who were rated low in motor performance, as determined by a teacher observation form. The two-tailed t statistic indicated a significant difference between standard mean scores for upper and lower quartile performances on the BOT-S (P<.05). However, there was a high degree of variance within the high and low groups. The results suggest that classroom teachers are more accurate in observing high motor performance than in observing low motor performance.

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Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes and Rodolfo Novelino Benda

habits will possibly present with lower motor performance in fundamental motor skills ( Bürgi et al., 2011 ; Cliff, Okely, Smith, & McKeen, 2009 ; Fisher et al., 2005 ;  Lubans, Morgan, Cliff, Barnett, & Okely, 2010 ; Ribeiro-Silva, Marinho, Brito, Costa, & Benda, 2018 ; Williams et al., 2008 ). This

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Jon Law, Rich Masters, Steven R. Bray, Frank Eves and Isabella Bardswell

Butler and Baumeister (1998) suggested that performance decrement of a difficult skill-based task occurring only in the presence of a supportive audience could be explained by “a cautious performance style” (p. 1226). A potential alternative explanation stems from Masters’ (1992) contention that skill failure under pressure occurs when performers attempt to control motor performance using explicit knowledge. It was proposed that a skill acquired with minimal metaknowledge (i.e., a limited explicit knowledge base) would remain robust regardless of audience type. To test this hypothesis, a table tennis shot was learned with either a greater or a lesser bank of explicit task knowledge. Performance was subsequently assessed in the presence of observation-only audiences, supportive audiences, and adversarial audiences. Consistent with hypotheses, supportive audiences induced performance decrement in the explicit-learning group only. It was argued that supportive audiences engender higher levels of internally focused attention than do adversarial or observation-only audiences, increasing the chance of disruption to skill execution when performance characteristics involve a large amount of explicit processing.

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Lennart Raudsepp and Mati Pääsuke

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the gender differences in kinematics of running at maximal speed and overhand throwing, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children. Sixty 8-year-old children (33 boys and 27 girls) participated in this study. There were no sex differences with respect to the running kinematics, but in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength the boys surpassed the girls significantly (p < .05). However, in sit and reach and balance the girls surpassed the boys. Nonsignificant correlations (r = .20–.40) were found between the majority of variables. These results indicate gender differences in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children.

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Joy Khayat, Stéphane Champely, Ahmad Diab, Ahmad Rifai Sarraj and Patrick Fargier

than by the use of arithmetical results that have been memorized). The corresponding arithmetical activity might have led to an emotional state favoring attentional control and, consequently, motor performance. In addition, the invlovement of a spatial representation of numbers during actual

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William J. Harvey and Greg Reid

The purpose of this study was to describe the fundamental gross motor skills and fitness conditions of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nineteen children, ages 7 to 12, participated. Gross motor performance was measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985). Fitness variables were measured by selected items from the Canada Fitness Survey (Fitness Canada, 1985), the CAHPER Fitness-Performance II Test (CAHPER, 1980), and the 20 m Shuttle Run Test (Leger, Lambert, Goulet, Rowan, & Dinelle, 1984). Percentile scores provided individual and group profiles of performance. It was concluded that fundamental gross motor performance and physical fitness of children with ADHD are substantially below average.