This study was designed to investigate the reliability of individual and composite scores obtained with the Objectives-Based Motor Skill Assessment Instrument. Generalizability theory was used to determine if the test scores were reliable across raters and occasions. Two D studies were conducted to ascertain whether an increase in the number of raters from 10 to 20 would increase the reliability. Twenty raters were required to evaluate the fundamental motor skills of 10 subjects across two occasions from videotapes. In 92% of the individual skill scores, the between-subject variance component contributed the most to total variance. Therefore, it can be concluded that the test is extremely reliable across raters and occasions. Examination of the generalizability coefficients for the two D studies indicates that the reliability is not largely affected by increasing the number of raters.
Dale A. Ulrich and Steven L. Wise
Dale A. Ulrich
This study was designed to investigate the reliability of classification decisions in the fundamental motor skill domain using the Objectives-Based Motor Skill Assessment Instrument. Nonhandicapped (n = 80) and mentally retarded (n = 40) students in the age range of 3 through 10 were assessed on two separate days. Two likely domain mastery criterion levels were used (85 and 70% of the total test score). The proportion of agreement (P) and Kappa (K) were the reliability indices employed. The reliability estimates for the nonhandicapped group were P = .89 and K = .78 using the 85% mastery criterion and P = .92 and K = .84 for the 70% criterion. The reliability estimates obtained for the mentally retarded group using an 85% criterion were P = .87 and K = .62 and for the 70% criterion P = .93 and K = .83. Based on these results the criterion-referenced test appears to consistently classify students on two occasions as masters or non-masters of fundamental motor skills using either cut-off score.
Nadia C. Valentini, Nancy Getchell, Samuel W. Logan, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, Mary E. Rudisill and Leah E. Robinson
We compared children with, at-risk for, or without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) through (a) correlations, (b) gender and age comparisons, (c) cross tab analyses, and (d) factor analyses.
Children (N = 424; age range: 4–10 years) from southern Brazil completed the TGMD-2 and MABC and placed into groups (DCD: ≤ 5th%, n = 58; at-risk: > 5th to ≤ 15th%, n = 133; typically developing (TD) >16th%, n = 233).
The strongest correlation was between total performance on the TGMD-2 and MABC (r = .37). No gender differences were found for performance on the MABC while boys performed better than girls on the TGMD-2. Cross tab analyses indicated a high level of agreement for children who performed in the lowest percentiles on each assessment. Factor analyses suggested that, for both the TD and at-risk groups, three factors loaded on the motor assessments. In contrast, the DCD group loaded on a sport skill, general skill, and a manipulative skill factor, accounting for 42.3% of the variance.
Evidence suggests that children who perform very poorly on one assessment are likely to perform poorly on the other. Children with DCD may have sports-related skill deficiencies.
Eva D’Hondt, Fotini Venetsanou, Antonis Kambas and Matthieu Lenoir
batteries exist, they often measure discrete or different aspects of motor competence and no single motor skill assessment tool is being internationally recognized as the gold standard to date ( Piek, Hands, & Licari, 2012 ; Rudd et al., 2016 ). Furthermore, there tends to be a lack of agreement on which
Ryan M. Hulteen, Lisa M. Barnett, Philip J. Morgan, Leah E. Robinson, Christian J. Barton, Brian H. Wrotniak and David R. Lubans
majority of research has focused on fundamental motor skills in children ( Cools, Martelaer, Samaey, & Andries, 2009 ). There are a small number of motor skill batteries that have been designed for adolescents, including the NyTid ( Tidén, Lundqvist, & Nyberg, 2015 ), Victorian Fundamental Motor Skill
Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch
Numerous barriers exist for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to engage in sporting activities, including behavioral problems and motor deficits. This study explored parent experiences of and influences on child participation in an 11-week Australian Football League (AFL) Auskick football program adapted for children with ASD as well as changes in their motor skills. The program was run in 2014 (Phase 1) and 2015 (Phase 2). In Phase 1 thematic analyses of nine parent interviews and pre-post parent proxy report of children’s motor skills were conducted with 15 parents. In Phase 2 pre-post objective motor skill assessment was undertaken in a separate sample of 13 children. Three key themes were identified: benefit of doing something ‘normal’; simple adaptations work; and, despite barriers, the benefits are worthwhile. Parent-proxy report indicated improvement in child object control skills. Objective assessment showed no change in children’s motor skill. Parental experiences of the program indicated that simple accommodations can engage children with ASD and their families in organized sporting programs. Given potential psychosocial and health benefits of organized sports, further controlled studies of this type of program in children with ASD are warranted.
Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang
competency in a variety of motor skills and movement patterns. Fundamental motor skills (locomotor and object control) PE Metrics motor skill assessment—kindergarten Standard 2: The physically literate individual applies knowledge of concepts, principles, strategies and tactics related to movement and
Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun and Timothy A. Brusseau
student failed twice to reach the other floor marker, the test was terminated. The final score was recorded in laps. Estimated VO 2 peak was calculated using a validated prediction algorithm that recorded Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run laps and age. 24 Gross Motor Skill Assessment The
Priscila Tamplain, E. Kipling Webster, Ali Brian and Nadia C. Valentini
achieving milestones, indicating that a few months after sitting onset, infants demonstrate sensory re-weighting ( Chen, Jeka, & Clark, 2016 ). Motor skill assessment has evolved across the periods from initial checklists for screening all the way to complex and refined tasks performed in lab environments
Lisa M. Barnett and Owen Makin
specifically capture FMS perception ( Harter & Pike, 1984 ). This is particularly the case in young children, where no instrument, until recently, has assessed perception in the same skills as those which are assessed in a common motor skill assessment battery. Understanding how children perceive their