This study examined the relationship between perceived physical competence and actual motor skill competence in African American preschool children at risk of school failure and/or developmental delay (N = 59). A secondary purpose was to determine gender differences and the accuracy of self-perceptions. All children completed a perceived physical competence subscale (Harter & Pike, 1984). Actual motor skill competence was measured by Ulrich’s (1985) Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD), resulting in three scores (locomotor, object-control, and TGMD-Total). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that locomotor competence (p = .99) and gender (p = .81) did not predict perceived physical competence, but object-control competence (p = .01) did significantly predict perceived physical competence. Adding gender to this regression model did not significantly predict perceived physical competence (p = .69). These findings showed that these children are not accurate at perceiving their physical competence.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
Amanda Timler, Fleur McIntyre and Beth Hands
. Boldface indicates gender difference ( p < .001). Discussion The PCA of the AMCQ scores identified four factors that contributed to Australian adolescent self-report of their motor skill competence. These were related to Participation in Physical Activities and Sports, Activities of Daily Living, Public
David F. Stodden, Zan Gao, Jacqueline D. Goodway and Stephen J. Langendorfer
This cross-sectional study examined associations among motor skill competence (MSC) and health-related fitness (HRF) in youth. A convenient sample of 253 boys and 203 girls (aged 4–13 years) participated in the study. Associations among measures of MSC (throwing and kicking speed and standing long jump distance) and a composite measure of HRF (push-ups, curl-ups, grip strength and PACER test) across five age groups (4–5, 6–7, 8–9, 10–11 and 12–13 yrs.) were assessed using hierarchical regression modeling. When including all children, throwing and jumping were significantly associated with the composite HRF factor for both boys and girls (throw, t = 5.33; jump, t = 4.49) beyond the significant age effect (t = 4.98) with kicking approaching significance (t = 1.73, p = .08). Associations between throwing and kicking speed and HRF appeared to increase from early to middle to late childhood age ranges. Associations between jumping and HRF were variable across age groups. These results support the notion that the relationship between MSC and HRF performance are dynamic and may change across childhood. These data suggest that the development of object control skills in childhood may be important for the development and maintenance of HRF across childhood and into adolescence.
Ruri Famelia, Emi Tsuda, Syahrial Bakhtiar and Jacqueline D. Goodway
the PMSC instrument and the mean of 6 items on the PPC. Fundamental Motor Skill Competence The Test of Gross Motor Development 3rd edition (TGMD-3; Ulrich, 2015 ) assessed the FMS Competence of participants. The TGMD-3 is a criterion-referenced assessment of FMS for children ages 3–10 years old. The
Samuel W. Logan, E. Kipling Webster, Nancy Getchell, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Leah E. Robinson
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence of the relationship between fundamental motor skills (FMS) competence and physical activity by qualitatively describing results from 13 studies that met rigorous inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: (a) published in a peer-review journal, (b) participants were between the ages of 3–18, (c) participants were typically developing, (d) FMS was measured by a process-oriented assessment, (e) assessed physical activity, (f) related FMS and physical activity through statistical procedures, and (g) printed in English. Databases were searched for relevant articles using key terms related to FMS and physical activity. Evidence suggested low to moderate relationships between FMS competence and physical activity in early childhood (r = .16 to .48; R 2 = 3–23%, 4 studies), low to high relationships in middle to late childhood (r = .24 to .55; R 2 = 6–30%, 7 studies), and low to moderate relationships in adolescence (r = .14 to .35; R 2 = 2–12.3%, 2 studies). Across ages, object control skills and locomotor skills were more strongly related to physical activity for boys and girls, respectively. Future research should emphasize experimental and longitudinal research designs to provide further understanding of the relationship between FMS competence and physical activity.
Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi and Mirko Schmidt
role of motor skill competence—that is the qualitative proficiency in performing a wide range of skills requiring motor coordination and control—for its positive associations with PA levels and a broad range of health benefits in children and adolescents ( Lubans, Morgan, Cliff, Barnett, & Okely, 2010
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Leah E. Robinson
This commentary examines the argument for early sport specialization versus sport sampling from a physical growth and motor development perspective. Three developmental frameworks are examined (Mountain of Motor Development, Developmental Model of Sport Participation, Spirals of Engagement Trajectory model) to make the case that a broad base of fundamental motor skill competence is necessary in the early years before sport specialization in the adolescent years. Early sport specialization is criticized from the standpoint of increased risk for overuse injury, concerns about long-term growth, and the fact that early and intense practice schedules often do not differentiate elite versus nonelite athletes. A strong argument is made for early sport sampling to acquire a broad base of fundamental motor skills to apply to different sports, and to allow physical maturity to develop before specializing in sport. Such an approach also better equips a child to be active across the lifespan.
Kara K. Palmer and Ali Brian
The Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD-2), is one of the most widely used measures of motor skill competence. The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in scores exist between expert and novice coders on the TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000).
Three coders, one expert and two novices, reviewed and scored young children’s (N = 43; Boys = 57%; Mage = 4.88, SD = 0.28) TGMD-2 data. The kappa statistic was used to determine agreement between expert and novice coders on the locomotor and object control subscale of the TGMD-2. Independent samples t tests and percent differences were then used to examine scoring differences for each of the twelve skills.
Results support that expert and novice coders do not demonstrate significant agreement when scoring the TGMD-2 except for when scoring the kick (t 41 = –1.3, p = .2) and the gallop (t 41= –1.7, p = .09).
This work demonstrates that more stringent or consistent training regimens are needed before allowing novices to code TGMD-2 data.
Judith Jiménez, Maria Morera, Walter Salazar and Carl Gabbard
Motor skill competence has been associated with physical activity level, fitness, and other relevant health-related characteristics. Recent research has focused on understanding these relationships in children and adolescents, but little is known about subsequent years. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fundamental motor skill (FMS) ability and body mass index (BMI) in young adults.
Participants, 40 men and 40 women (M age = 19.25 yr, SD = 2.48), were assessed for BMI and motor competence with 10 fundamental motor skills (FMSs) using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills in Adults (TFMSA).
BMI was negatively associated with total motor ability (r = –.257; p = .02) and object control skills (r = –.251; p = .02); the relationship with locomotor skills was marginally insignificant (r = –.204; p = .07). In regard to individual skills, a significant negative association was found for running, jumping, striking, and kicking (ps < .05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI and gender predicted 42% of the variance in total FMS score; gender was the only significant predictor.
Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that young adults with higher FMS ability are more likely to have lower BMI scores.
E. Kipling Webster and Dale A. Ulrich
With recent revisions, the evaluation of the reliability and validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development—3rd edition (TGMD-3) is necessary. The TGMD-3 was administered to 807 children (M age = 6.33 ± 2.09 years; 52.5% male). Reliability assessments found that correlations with age were moderate to large; ball skills had a higher correlation (r = .47) compared with locomotor skills (r = .39). Internal consistency was very high in each age group and remained excellent for all racial/ethnic groups and both sexes. Test-retest reliability had high ICC agreements for the locomotor (ICC = 0.97), ball skills (ICC = 0.95), and total TGMD-3 (ICC = 0.97). For validity measures, the TGMD-3 had above acceptable item difficulty (range = 0.43–0.91) and item discrimination values (range = 0.34–0.67). EFA supported a one-factor structure of gross motor skill competence for the TGMD-3 with 73.82% variance explained. CFA supported the one-factor model (χ2(65) = 327.61, p < .001, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .10), showing acceptable construct validity for the TGMD-3. Preliminary results show the TGMD-3 exhibits high levels of validity and reliability, providing confidence for the usage and collection of new norms.