In addition to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), motor skill deficits are present, persistent, and pervasive across age. Although motor skill deficits have been indicated in young children with autism, they have not been included in the primary discussion of early intervention content. One hundred fifty-nine young children with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD (n = 110), PDD-NOS (n = 26), and non-ASD (n = 23) between the ages of 14–33 months participated in this study.1 The univariate general linear model tested the relationship of fine and gross motor skills and social communicative skills (using calibrated autism severity scores). Fine motor and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p < .05). Children with weaker motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. Future directions and the role of motor skills in early intervention are discussed.
Megan MacDonald, Catherine Lord and Dale A. Ulrich
Kara K. Palmer, Danielle Harkavy, Sarah M. Rock and Leah E. Robinson
Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are goal-directed, voluntary movements that develop into more advanced or sport-specific movements ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS develop in childhood (3–7 years of age) and form the foundation for more context-specific skills later in life ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002
Karl M. Newell
There have been many efforts to provide a classification or taxonomy of human perceptual-motor skills 1 (e.g., Burton & Rodgerson, 2001 ; Fleishman, Quaintance, & Broedling, 1984 ; Gentile, 1987 ; Poulton, 1957 ; Schmidt & Lee, 2012 ; Seefeldt, 1980 ; Singer & Gerson, 1981 ; Warren, 2006
You Fu and Ryan D. Burns
, 2007 ). Because children spend a significant portion of waking hours during school, finding ways to increase school day physical activity may facilitate meeting daily guidelines. Improving gross motor skills may facilitate meeting daily physical activity guidelines in youth. Evidence suggests that the
Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim and Kathryn L. Gwizdala
, standardized motor development scales may not detect delays until 6 months ( Rast & Harris, 1985 ). Furthermore, motor delays in infants with DS hold relevance beyond infancy, as motor proficiency remains a difficult goal into childhood ( Jobling, 1999 ). Improvements in motor skills are not only important for
Jacqueline D. Goodway, Heather Crowe and Phillip Ward
The influence of a 9-week instructional program on locomotor and object control skill development of preschoolers who are at risk of developmental delay was investigated. The motor skill instruction group (n = 33) received 18, 35-min lessons; the comparison group (n = 30) received the regular prekindergarten program. Pre and posttest scores on the locomotor and object control subscales of the Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985) were obtained. A Group by Gender MANOVA with repeated measures yielded a significant Group by Time interaction. The intervention group performed significantly better than the comparison group from pre to posttest for both locomotor and object control skills. Additionally, this group had significantly higher posttest scores than the comparison group.
Maureen R. Weiss
understanding of the intrapersonal and socioenvironmental factors that influence motor and psychosocial development and physical activity. It also can enhance translation of research to best practices for teaching youth in motor skill programs, physical education, organized sport, and other activity contexts. I
Ruri Famelia, Emi Tsuda, Syahrial Bakhtiar and Jacqueline D. Goodway
proposed by Stodden et al. ( 2008 ). This model suggests that fundamental motor skill (FMS) competence may be a key underlying mechanism driving physical activity behaviors over time. Moreover, perceived motor competence, and health-related fitness may mediate this relationship ( Robinson et al., 2015
Laura Spivey Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer and Alexis Ortiz
Almost 2 million American children are homeschooled but no information is currently available regarding motor skill proficiency within this population. The purpose of this research was to describe motor skill proficiency among homeschooled children and assess differences in homeschooled subgroups. This crosssectional study screened 73 homeschooled children aged 5–8 years for overall motor skill proficiency using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF). Independent t tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency within the homeschooled population. Mann-Whitney U tests examined differences in motor skill proficiency classification within significantly different subgroups. Homeschooled children demonstrated average motor proficiency. Significantly different motor proficiency was seen among homeschooled children participating in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week, t(71) = 2.805, p = .006, 95% CI = 1.77, 10.49, and whose primary caregiver was employed versus unemployed, t(71) = –3.875, p < .001, 95% CI = –13.29, –4.26. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significantly different motor skill proficiency classification in these same subgroups. Overall, homeschooling showed no detrimental effect on motor skill proficiency. Participation in 3 or more hours of organized sports per week or having an unemployed primary caregiver may improve motor skill proficiency among this population.
Margarita D. Tsiros, Emily J. Ward, Sophie Lefmann and Susan Hillier
accepted that children need to be able to perform basic motor skills such as locomotor (running, jumping, etc.), balance (standing on one leg, etc.), object control (catching, throwing, kicking, etc.), and fine motor tasks (using a pencil/scissors, etc.) ( Barnett, van Beurden, Morgan, Brooks, & Beard