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Infants’ Motor Activity During a Mother–Infant Interaction Alternating Silent and Singing Phases

Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier, and Celine Scola

vocalizing, as well as imitation and general motor activity ( Trevarthen, 1986 ). However, the contribution of motor behavior to early communication and its development has seldom been studied. According to Thelen ( 1981 ), very early on, the repetitive nature of infants’ rhythmic movements lends them a

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Processing of Accelerometry Data with GGIR in Motor Activity Research Consortium for Health

Wei Guo, Andrew Leroux, Haochang Shou, Lihong Cui, Sun Jung Kang, Marie-Pierre Françoise Strippoli, Martin Preisig, Vadim Zipunnikov, and Kathleen Ries Merikangas

Transforming mobile digital health data into actionable knowledge about human physiology, behavior, and health requires multidisciplinary efforts that focus on collection, processing, and analysis of these complex data. One example of such efforts is the “mobile Motor Activity Research Consortium

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Cardiovascular Responses of Three Profoundly Retarded, Multiply Handicapped Children during Selected Motor Activities

Richard Mulholland Jr. and Alexander W. McNeill

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of physical activities on the cardiovascular performances of three institutionalized, profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children. Heart rates were recorded during the completion of selected motor activities using a combination of telemetered electrocardiograms (ECG) and standard wireless microphone/video technology. Each subject participated in the experiment for a minimum of 6 weeks. The relationships between mean heart rates and performance times for each subject were evaluated throughout the experiment. Based upon the data collected, it was concluded that gross motor activities may have a significant effect on the cardiorespiratory functioning of profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children, provided the activities are performed for an extended period of time and on a regular basis. The activities selected for use in this study were developmentally based, and no special consideration was given to their aerobic demands on the subjects. The subjects’ level of functioning dictated the use of developmental criteria rather than other, more fitness oriented, criteria that are usually applied to nonhandicapped individuals.

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Heart Rate Responses of Profoundly Retarded, Multiply Handicapped Children during Closed-Skill Fine Motor and Open-Skill Gross Motor Activities

Richard Mulholland Jr. and Alexander W. McNeill

This study compared the heart rate responses of two profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children during the performance of closed-skill fine motor activities and open-skill gross motor activities. The fine motor skills were typical classroom activities, and the gross motor skills were a part of each child’s special physical education programming. Heart rates were recorded for 20-sec intervals from the onset of the performance of each skill until the task objective was obtained. Based upon the results of this study, we concluded that the closed-skill fine motor classroom activities induce physiological stress at levels never before suspected. It is suggested that the dramatic heart rate responses may result from a hyposensitive condition of the spindle afferents, the gamma efferents, and the kinesthetic joint receptors, or from a breakdown in the retrieval of the stored motor program resulting in inappropriate spatial and temporal summation. As a result of the heart rate responses, it is suggested that classroom learning programs may need to be redesigned to accommodate for fatigue in this type of child.

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Factors Related to Physical Activity in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

scheduling at the preschool level was Bonvin, who found a connection between a schedule set aside especially for motor activities in the class timetable and the performance of PA. For Bürgi et al, 20 Dowda et al, 13 Gubbels et al, 14 Spurrier et al, 15 and Xu et al, 16 the fact that the mother did PA

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Interventions for Promoting Physical Activity Among Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima, and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

when this study was structured. The search was performed using descriptors (DeCS/MeSH) or keywords, depending on the database used. The descriptors “motor activity” and “spinal cord disease” were searched in the PubMed and biblioteca virtual em saúde (BVS) databases, whereas the terms “motor activity

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Sex Bias in Evaluating Motor Activity: General or Task-specific Performance Expectancy?

L. R. Brawley, R. C. Powers, and K. A. Phillips

This experiment examined if a general expectancy for male superiority biased subjective evaluation of motor performance. Alternatively, sex bias could be specific to tasks involving muscular work. If the former, rather than the latter explanation is viable, a bias favoring males would be generalized to a task not obviously sex typed: motor accuracy. Observers, 22 of each sex, watched the softball pitching accuracy of performers of both sexes. Performer accuracy was trained and tested to ensure equality. Observers estimated preperformance accuracy, then observed three throws, estimating postperformance after each. Unlike the muscular endurance experiments, neither preperformance nor postperformance analysis revealed a sex bias. Thus a task-specific expectancy rather than general expectancy for male superiority was suggested to explain evaluation sex bias of previous muscular endurance experiments. Surprisingly, mean error magnitude of postperformance estimates was significantly greater for performers observed second than those viewed first, although actual performer accuracy was not different. This finding appears analogous to psychophysical judgment results in which successive stimulus judgments were conditions sufficient to cause estimation error. Suggestions are made for future research.

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Association(s) Between Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Patterns and Obesity Among Brazilian Adolescents

André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini

Purpose: To investigate the association between patterns of sedentary behavior and obesity indicators among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 389 adolescents (186 boys) aged 10–14 years. Body mass index, body fat (skinfolds), and waist circumference were adopted as outcomes. Sedentary behavior patterns (total time, bouts, and breaks) measured through accelerometry (GT3X and GT3X+; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL) were adopted as exposures. Peak height velocity, moderate to vigorous physical activity (accelerometer), cardiorespiratory fitness (Léger test), sex, and chronological age were adopted as covariates. Linear regression models adjusted for covariates were used to determine associations between outcome and exposure variables. Results: The mean age of adolescents was 11.8 (0.7) years. Boys were more active than girls (P < .001). Accumulating shorter bouts (1–4 min) of sedentary behavior was negatively associated with body mass index (β = −0.050; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.098 to −0.003) and waist circumference (β = −0.133; 95% CI, −0.237 to −0.028). Similarly, a higher number of breaks in sedentary behavior were negatively associated with body mass index (β = −0.160; 95% CI, −0.319 to −0.001) and waist circumference (β = −0.412; 95% CI, −0.761 to −0.064). Conclusion: Shorter bouts of sedentary behavior (1–4 min) and a higher number of breaks of sedentary behavior were associated with lower adiposity. Our findings also suggest that breaking up sedentary time to ensure bouts of sedentary behavior are short might contribute to the prevention of obesity in adolescents.

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Physical Activity During Pregnancy and Preterm Birth: Findings From the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

Werner de Andrade Müller, Grégore Iven Mielke, Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Mariangela F. Silveira, and Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

Background: Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is associated with several benefits in maternal and child outcomes, and its relationship with preterm birth is still conflicting. This study aims to examine the associations between PA during pregnancy and occurrence of preterm birth. Methods: PA was assessed by questionnaire (for each trimester) and accelerometry (second trimester) in women enrolled in a birth cohort study that started during pregnancy and included births that occurred between January 1 and December 31, 2015. Gestational age was based on the last menstrual period and ultrasonography. All deliveries before 37 weeks of gestation were considered preterm births. A Poisson regression model was used to measure associations controlling for potential confounders. Results: PA information was available for 4163 women and 13.8% of births were preterm. A total of 15.8% of women were engaged in PA during pregnancy. Multivariate analysis showed that only PA performed in the third trimester of pregnancy (prevalence ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.36–0.96) was associated with the outcome. Conclusions: PA performed in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with a protection to preterm birth. Pregnant women should be counseled to engage in PA to lower the risk of premature delivery.

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Where Do the Children Play? The Influence of Playground Equipment on Physical Activity of Children in Free Play

Thomas A. Farley, Rebecca A. Meriwether, Erin T. Baker, Janet C. Rice, and Larry S. Webber


Promotion of physical activity in children depends on an understanding of how children use play equipment.


We conducted observations over 2 years of children in 2nd through 8th grades in a schoolyard with 5 distinct play areas with different amounts of play equipment.


Children were more likely to play in areas with more installed play equipment, with densities of children in equipped areas 3.3 to 12.6 times higher than in an open grassy field. There were no significant differences by play area in the percent of children who were physically active at all, but children were more likely to be very active in areas with basketball goals and an installed play structure than in an open field.


Playground equipment appeared to have a strong influence on where children played and a moderate influence on levels of activity. To maximize physical activity in children, playgrounds should be designed with ample and diverse play equipment.