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Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier, and Celine Scola

vocalizing, as well as imitation and general motor activity ( Trevarthen, 1986 ). However, the contribution of motor behavior to early communication and its development has seldom been studied. According to Thelen ( 1981 ), very early on, the repetitive nature of infants’ rhythmic movements lends them a

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Richard Mulholland Jr. and Alexander W. McNeill

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of physical activities on the cardiovascular performances of three institutionalized, profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children. Heart rates were recorded during the completion of selected motor activities using a combination of telemetered electrocardiograms (ECG) and standard wireless microphone/video technology. Each subject participated in the experiment for a minimum of 6 weeks. The relationships between mean heart rates and performance times for each subject were evaluated throughout the experiment. Based upon the data collected, it was concluded that gross motor activities may have a significant effect on the cardiorespiratory functioning of profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children, provided the activities are performed for an extended period of time and on a regular basis. The activities selected for use in this study were developmentally based, and no special consideration was given to their aerobic demands on the subjects. The subjects’ level of functioning dictated the use of developmental criteria rather than other, more fitness oriented, criteria that are usually applied to nonhandicapped individuals.

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Richard Mulholland Jr. and Alexander W. McNeill

This study compared the heart rate responses of two profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children during the performance of closed-skill fine motor activities and open-skill gross motor activities. The fine motor skills were typical classroom activities, and the gross motor skills were a part of each child’s special physical education programming. Heart rates were recorded for 20-sec intervals from the onset of the performance of each skill until the task objective was obtained. Based upon the results of this study, we concluded that the closed-skill fine motor classroom activities induce physiological stress at levels never before suspected. It is suggested that the dramatic heart rate responses may result from a hyposensitive condition of the spindle afferents, the gamma efferents, and the kinesthetic joint receptors, or from a breakdown in the retrieval of the stored motor program resulting in inappropriate spatial and temporal summation. As a result of the heart rate responses, it is suggested that classroom learning programs may need to be redesigned to accommodate for fatigue in this type of child.

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

scheduling at the preschool level was Bonvin, who found a connection between a schedule set aside especially for motor activities in the class timetable and the performance of PA. For Bürgi et al, 20 Dowda et al, 13 Gubbels et al, 14 Spurrier et al, 15 and Xu et al, 16 the fact that the mother did PA

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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima, and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

when this study was structured. The search was performed using descriptors (DeCS/MeSH) or keywords, depending on the database used. The descriptors “motor activity” and “spinal cord disease” were searched in the PubMed and biblioteca virtual em saúde (BVS) databases, whereas the terms “motor activity

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L. R. Brawley, R. C. Powers, and K. A. Phillips

This experiment examined if a general expectancy for male superiority biased subjective evaluation of motor performance. Alternatively, sex bias could be specific to tasks involving muscular work. If the former, rather than the latter explanation is viable, a bias favoring males would be generalized to a task not obviously sex typed: motor accuracy. Observers, 22 of each sex, watched the softball pitching accuracy of performers of both sexes. Performer accuracy was trained and tested to ensure equality. Observers estimated preperformance accuracy, then observed three throws, estimating postperformance after each. Unlike the muscular endurance experiments, neither preperformance nor postperformance analysis revealed a sex bias. Thus a task-specific expectancy rather than general expectancy for male superiority was suggested to explain evaluation sex bias of previous muscular endurance experiments. Surprisingly, mean error magnitude of postperformance estimates was significantly greater for performers observed second than those viewed first, although actual performer accuracy was not different. This finding appears analogous to psychophysical judgment results in which successive stimulus judgments were conditions sufficient to cause estimation error. Suggestions are made for future research.

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MeLisa Creamer, Heather R. Bowles, Belinda von Hofe, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Harold W. Kohl III, and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Computer-assisted techniques may be a useful way to enhance physical activity surveillance and increase accuracy of reported behaviors.

Purpose:

Evaluate the reliability and validity of a physical activity (PA) self-report instrument administered by telephone and internet.

Methods:

The telephone-administered Active Australia Survey was adapted into 2 forms for internet self-administration: survey questions only (internet-text) and with videos demonstrating intensity (internet-video). Data were collected from 158 adults (20–69 years, 61% female) assigned to telephone (telephone-interview) (n = 56), internet-text (n = 51), or internet-video (n = 51). Participants wore an accelerometer and completed a logbook for 7 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Convergent validity was assessed using Spearman correlations.

Results:

Strong test-retest reliability was observed for PA variables in the internet-text (ICC = 0.69 to 0.88), internet-video (ICC = 0.66 to 0.79), and telephone-interview (ICC = 0.69 to 0.92) groups (P-values < 0.001). For total PA, correlations (ρ) between the survey and Actigraph+logbook were ρ = 0.47 for the internet-text group, ρ = 0.57 for the internet-video group, and ρ = 0.65 for the telephone-interview group. For vigorous-intensity activity, the correlations between the survey and Actigraph+logbook were 0.52 for internet-text, 0.57 for internet-video, and 0.65 for telephone-interview (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Internet-video of the survey had similar test-retest reliability and convergent validity when compared with the telephone-interview, and should continue to be developed.

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Alan G. Knuth, Deborah C. Malta, Danielle K. Cruz, Adriana M. Castro, Janaína Fagundes, Luciana M. Sardinha, Cristiane Scolari Gosch, Eduardo J. Simões, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

Based on the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS), the Ministry of Health (MoH) started stimulating and funding physical activity interventions in 2005, leading to the establishment of a countrywide network. The aim of the present article is to geographically describe this network (2005−2008) and to present structure and process evaluation indicators of interventions funded in 2006 and 2007.

Methods:

In 2005, the 27 state capitals received funding for carrying out physical activity-related interventions. From 2006 onwards, public calls for proposals were announced, and cities were selected through a competitive basis. Coordinators of interventions in cities who got funding in 2006 and 2007 answered to survey questions on structure and process aspects of the interventions.

Results:

The network currently comprises 469 projects, out of which over 60% are carried out in small cities (<30,000 inhabitants). The most frequently used public spaces for the interventions are squares and indoor sports courts. The main physical activity-related topic of the PNPS prioritized in the projects is healthy diet. The main partnerships developed are between City's Health and Education Secretariats.

Conclusion:

Expanding the network to 1000 cities by 2010 and continuing the evaluation efforts are the next goals of the Brazilian MoH.

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André O. Werneck, Edilson S. Cyrino, Paul J. Collings, Enio R.V. Ronque, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Luís B. Sardinha, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Methods: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire. Data on covariables (including chronological age, educational status, skin color, sodium consumption, sugar consumption, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity) were also self-reported. Logistic regression models and population attributable fractions were used for the etiological analyses. Results: The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of >4 hours per day of TV viewing was 12.7% (12.0–13.4) in men and 17.5% (16.8–18.3) in women. Men and women being younger or older, moderately educated, living alone, smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol were associated with higher reported TV viewing time. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) revealed that >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes [male: 1.64 (1.23–2.17) and female: 1.33 (1.09–1.63)], hypertension [male: 1.36 (1.14–1.63) and female: 1.20 (1.05–1.37)], and heart disease [male: 1.96 (1.43–2.69) and female: 1.30 (1.00–1.68)]. Exceeding 4 hours per day of TV viewing was responsible for 6.8% of type 2 diabetes, 3.7% of hypertension, and 7.5% of heart disease cases. Conclusions: Independent of covariates, >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. High volumes of TV viewing are prevalent and appear to contribute to chronic disease burden.

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Dawn P. Gill, Gareth R. Jones, GuangYong Zou, and Mark Speechley

The purpose of this study was to develop a brief physical activity interview for older adults (Phone-FITT) and evaluate its test–retest reliability and validity. Summary scores were derived for household, recreational, and total PA. Reliability was evaluated in a convenience sample from a fall-prevention study (N = 43, 79.4 ± 2.9 years, 51% male), and validity, in a random sample of individuals in older adult exercise programs (N = 48, 77.4 ± 4.7 years, 25% male). Mean time to complete the Phone-FITT was 10 min for participants sampled from exercise programs. Evaluation of test–retest reliability indicated substantial to almost perfect agreement for all scores, with intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidence intervals) ranging from .74 (.58–.85) to .88 (.8–.94). For validity, Spearman’s rho correlations of Phone-FITT scores with accelerometer counts ranged from .29 (.01–.53) to .57 (.34–.73). Correlations of Phone-FITT recreational scores with age and seconds to complete a self-paced step test ranged from –.29 (–.53 to –.01) to –.45 (–.68 to –.14). This study contributes preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the Phone-FITT.