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Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier, and Celine Scola

vocalizing, as well as imitation and general motor activity ( Trevarthen, 1986 ). However, the contribution of motor behavior to early communication and its development has seldom been studied. According to Thelen ( 1981 ), very early on, the repetitive nature of infants’ rhythmic movements lends them a

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Richard Mulholland Jr. and Alexander W. McNeill

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of physical activities on the cardiovascular performances of three institutionalized, profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children. Heart rates were recorded during the completion of selected motor activities using a combination of telemetered electrocardiograms (ECG) and standard wireless microphone/video technology. Each subject participated in the experiment for a minimum of 6 weeks. The relationships between mean heart rates and performance times for each subject were evaluated throughout the experiment. Based upon the data collected, it was concluded that gross motor activities may have a significant effect on the cardiorespiratory functioning of profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children, provided the activities are performed for an extended period of time and on a regular basis. The activities selected for use in this study were developmentally based, and no special consideration was given to their aerobic demands on the subjects. The subjects’ level of functioning dictated the use of developmental criteria rather than other, more fitness oriented, criteria that are usually applied to nonhandicapped individuals.

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Richard Mulholland Jr. and Alexander W. McNeill

This study compared the heart rate responses of two profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped children during the performance of closed-skill fine motor activities and open-skill gross motor activities. The fine motor skills were typical classroom activities, and the gross motor skills were a part of each child’s special physical education programming. Heart rates were recorded for 20-sec intervals from the onset of the performance of each skill until the task objective was obtained. Based upon the results of this study, we concluded that the closed-skill fine motor classroom activities induce physiological stress at levels never before suspected. It is suggested that the dramatic heart rate responses may result from a hyposensitive condition of the spindle afferents, the gamma efferents, and the kinesthetic joint receptors, or from a breakdown in the retrieval of the stored motor program resulting in inappropriate spatial and temporal summation. As a result of the heart rate responses, it is suggested that classroom learning programs may need to be redesigned to accommodate for fatigue in this type of child.

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Angela Maria Hoyos-Quintero and Herney Andrés García-Perdomo

scheduling at the preschool level was Bonvin, who found a connection between a schedule set aside especially for motor activities in the class timetable and the performance of PA. For Bürgi et al, 20 Dowda et al, 13 Gubbels et al, 14 Spurrier et al, 15 and Xu et al, 16 the fact that the mother did PA

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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima, and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

when this study was structured. The search was performed using descriptors (DeCS/MeSH) or keywords, depending on the database used. The descriptors “motor activity” and “spinal cord disease” were searched in the PubMed and biblioteca virtual em saúde (BVS) databases, whereas the terms “motor activity

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L. R. Brawley, R. C. Powers, and K. A. Phillips

This experiment examined if a general expectancy for male superiority biased subjective evaluation of motor performance. Alternatively, sex bias could be specific to tasks involving muscular work. If the former, rather than the latter explanation is viable, a bias favoring males would be generalized to a task not obviously sex typed: motor accuracy. Observers, 22 of each sex, watched the softball pitching accuracy of performers of both sexes. Performer accuracy was trained and tested to ensure equality. Observers estimated preperformance accuracy, then observed three throws, estimating postperformance after each. Unlike the muscular endurance experiments, neither preperformance nor postperformance analysis revealed a sex bias. Thus a task-specific expectancy rather than general expectancy for male superiority was suggested to explain evaluation sex bias of previous muscular endurance experiments. Surprisingly, mean error magnitude of postperformance estimates was significantly greater for performers observed second than those viewed first, although actual performer accuracy was not different. This finding appears analogous to psychophysical judgment results in which successive stimulus judgments were conditions sufficient to cause estimation error. Suggestions are made for future research.

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André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini

Purpose: To investigate the association between patterns of sedentary behavior and obesity indicators among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 389 adolescents (186 boys) aged 10–14 years. Body mass index, body fat (skinfolds), and waist circumference were adopted as outcomes. Sedentary behavior patterns (total time, bouts, and breaks) measured through accelerometry (GT3X and GT3X+; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL) were adopted as exposures. Peak height velocity, moderate to vigorous physical activity (accelerometer), cardiorespiratory fitness (Léger test), sex, and chronological age were adopted as covariates. Linear regression models adjusted for covariates were used to determine associations between outcome and exposure variables. Results: The mean age of adolescents was 11.8 (0.7) years. Boys were more active than girls (P < .001). Accumulating shorter bouts (1–4 min) of sedentary behavior was negatively associated with body mass index (β = −0.050; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.098 to −0.003) and waist circumference (β = −0.133; 95% CI, −0.237 to −0.028). Similarly, a higher number of breaks in sedentary behavior were negatively associated with body mass index (β = −0.160; 95% CI, −0.319 to −0.001) and waist circumference (β = −0.412; 95% CI, −0.761 to −0.064). Conclusion: Shorter bouts of sedentary behavior (1–4 min) and a higher number of breaks of sedentary behavior were associated with lower adiposity. Our findings also suggest that breaking up sedentary time to ensure bouts of sedentary behavior are short might contribute to the prevention of obesity in adolescents.

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Bruna Camilo Turi, Jamile S. Codogno, Romulo A. Fernandes, Xuemei Sui, Carl J. Lavie, Steven N. Blair, and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system.

Methods:

963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis.

Results:

Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]).

Conclusions:

The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

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Airton J. Rombaldi, Ana M.B. Menezes, Mario Renato Azevedo, and Pedro C. Hallal

Objectives:

To explore whether participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with participation in occupational, housework, and transport-related physical activity.

Methods:

Population-based cross-sectional study covering a multistage sample of 972 subjects age 20 to 69 years. Physical activity was measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A LTPA score was calculated as follows: min/wk of walking + min/wk of moderate-intensity physical activity + (min/wk of vigorous-intensity physical activity × 2). Similar scores were generated for each domain. For categorical analyses, the scores were divided into 3 categories: 0 min/wk, 10−149 min/wk, and ≥150 min/wk.

Results:

The proportion of subjects practicing less than 150 min/wk of physical activity in each domain was: leisure-time (69.8%), occupational (58.3%), housework (35.0%), transportation (51.9%). Subjects with a transport-related physical activity score equal to or above 150 min/wk were 40% less likely to be sedentary in leisure-time in comparison with those who did not practice transport-related physical activity. Housework and occupational physical activity were not related to participation in LTPA.

Conclusions:

Future physical activity campaigns should focus on other domains instead of LTPA alone, particularly supporting transport-related physical activity as a strategy of health promotion.

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Daniël Bossen, Cindy Veenhof, Joost Dekker, and Dinny de Bakker

Background:

Despite well-documented health benefits, adults with a physical chronic condition do not meet the recommended physical activity (PA) guidelines. Therefore, secondary prevention programs focusing on PA are needed. Web-based interventions have shown promise in the promotion of PA behavior change. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence about the effectiveness of web-based PA interventions in adults with chronic disease.

Methods:

Articles were included if they evaluated a web-based PA intervention and used a randomized design. Moreover, studies were eligible for inclusion if they used a non- or minimal-treatment control group and if PA outcomes measures were applied. Seven articles were included.

Results:

Three high-quality studies were statistically significant to the control group, whereas 2 high- and 2 low-quality studies reported nonsignificant findings.

Conclusion:

Our best evidence synthesis revealed that there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of web-based PA interventions in patients with a chronic disease.