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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

individuals with ASD lack the ability to take on the perspective of the other person, and therefore, do not understand how the person would like to be handed the hammer. In this interpretation, individuals with ASD may have normal motor planning, but cannot understand the intentions of another person, and

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Ran Zheng, Ilana D. Naiman, Jessica Skultety, Steven R. Passmore, Jim Lyons, and Cheryl M. Glazebrook

movements due to cognitive processing (i.e., time for movement organization) or motor processing (i.e., time for force generation). Movement Execution Unlike motor planning, there is a discrepancy in the literature with respect to whether or not movement execution is different in the ASD population

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Theresa C. Hauge, Garrett E. Katz, Gregory P. Davis, Kyle J. Jaquess, Matthew J. Reinhard, Michelle E. Costanzo, James A. Reggia, and Rodolphe J. Gentili

high-level motor planning 2 underlying action sequences during complex tasks that require strategy. Specifically, complex tasks can be considered those that i) impose high cognitive-motor demands (e.g., working memory, planning/coordination; Welsh & Huizinga, 2005 ) on the performer (at least at the

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy, and Pamela J. Bryden

, 2010 ). Here, 13% of 3-year-olds were sensitive to ESC, compared with 94% of 8-year-olds. From 3–4 years and 4–5 years, the proportion of children who displayed ESC doubled, therefore, providing evidence that 3- to 5-year-olds undergo a period of significant improvement in motor planning skills

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Loes Janssen, Céline Crajé, Matthias Weigelt, and Bert Steenbergen

We examined anticipatory motor planning and the interaction among both hands in a discrete bimanual task. To this end, participants had to grasp and manipulate two cylindrical objects simultaneously under varying conditions in which (a) the grip selection requirements, i.e., orientation of the to-be-grasped objects, differed between the two hands and (b) the type of grip for one hand was preinstructed, while the grip for the other hand was free choice. Results showed that participants, when grasping for two bars with a free grip choice, prioritized planning for comfortable end postures over symmetry of movement execution. Furthermore, when participants were free to choose a grip for their left hand, but were instructed on how to grasp an object with their right hand, we found no interaction between the grip selections of both hands, suggesting that motor planning proceeds independently for both hands.

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Alesha Reed, Jacqueline Cummine, Neesha Bhat, Shivraj Jhala, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, and Carol A. Boliek

preparation as the programming of individual articulators that occurs prior to speech onset (i.e., 300 ms before the onset of speech). Initiation is defined as the initial act of the motor plan (i.e., from onset of speech to 300 ms after the onset of speech), and total execution is defined as the

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Swati M. Surkar, Rashelle M. Hoffman, Brenda Davies, Regina Harbourne, and Max J. Kurz

.T. , Bekkering , H. , & Steenbergen , B. ( 2010 ). Compromised motor planning and motor imagery in right hemiparetic cerebral palsy . Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31 ( 5 ), 1039 – 1046 . PubMed ID: 20451346 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2010.04.007 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.07.010 Duff , S.V. , & Gordon

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Anne R. Schutte and John P. Spencer

The timed-initiation paradigm developed by Ghez and colleagues (1997) has revealed two modes of motor planning: continuous and discrete. Continuous responding occurs when targets are separated by less than 60° of spatial angle, and discrete responding occurs when targets are separated by greater than 60°. Although these two modes are thought to reflect the operation of separable strategic planning systems, a new theory of movement preparation, the Dynamic Field Theory, suggests that two modes emerge flexibly from the same system. Experiment 1 replicated continuous and discrete performance using a task modified to allow for a critical test of the single system view. In Experiment 2, participants were allowed to correct their movements following movement initiation (the standard task does not allow corrections). Results showed continuous planning performance at large and small target separations. These results are consistent with the proposal that the two modes reflect the time-dependent “preshaping” of a single planning system.

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Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets, and Rosa Angulo-Barroso

values. Lower IDE values shown by participants in EX-rVMA group during the retention sets could be interpreted as improvements in motor-memory consolidation since a new motor planning (internal motor representation) of the task had to be available at the onset of the trial (prior to 80 ms) during the

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Johanna Newsom, Peter Knight, and Ronald Balnave

Objective:

To assess whether mental imagery of gripping prevents the loss of grip strength associated with forearm immobilization.

Design:

Pretest–posttest randomized-group design.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

13 female and 5 male university students, age between 17 and 30 years, randomly assigned into 2 groups—1 control and 1 experimental.

Interventions:

Both groups had their nondominant forearms immobilized for 10 days. The experimental group undertook three 5-min mental-imagery sessions daily, during which they imagined they were squeezing a rubber ball.

Main Outcome Measures:

Wrist-flexion and -extension and grip strength before and after immobilization.

Results:

There was no significant change in wrist-flexion or -extension strength in the mental-imagery group. The control group experienced a significant decrease in wrist-flexion and -extension strength during the period of immobilization (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Despite study limitations, the results suggest that mental imagery might be useful in preventing the strength loss associated with short-term muscle immobilization