the performance of individual locomotor skills. Motor skill interventions are an effective way to teach motor skills to children ( Logan, Robinson, Wilson, & Lucas, 2011 ; Wick et al., 2017 ), but it is unclear if boys and girls exhibit different changes in skills across FMS interventions. One study
Kara K. Palmer, Danielle Harkavy, Sarah M. Rock and Leah E. Robinson
Mia Pless and Marianne Carlsson
The purpose was to determine whether evidence exists in published research from 1970 to 1996 to support motor skill intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or equivalent conditions. The following questions were addressed: (a) Which (if any) of three theoretical approaches to motor skill interventions is supported by evidence? (b) How do age of participants, research design, intervention setting, and intervention duration affect motor outcomes? (c) What are the results of meta-analysis? Twenty-one relevant studies were identified, and 13 (all that reported means and standard deviations) were subjected to meta-analysis. Findings indicated that motor skill intervention is most effective when applied with (a) children with DCD over age 5, (b) the specific skill theoretical approach, (c) intervention conducted in a group setting or as a home program, and (d) intervention frequency of at least 3 to 5 times per week. No clear findings emerged in regard to other variables.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
This study was conducted to determine the influence of a motor skill intervention (MSI) program on the perceived competence and social acceptance of African American preschoolers who are at risk of school failure/developmental delay. Two groups of preschoolers enrolled in a compensatory prekindergarten program participated in a 12-week intervention. The motor skill intervention (MSI) group received an MSI program, while the control group (C) received the regular prekindergarten program. All children completed Harter’s Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance prior to and following the 12-week program. The results indicated that all children, regardless of group, reported high perceived physical and cognitive competence and high perceived maternal and peer acceptance. Additionally, the MSI group reported significantly higher perceived physical competence scores after receiving the MSI program. The MSI group also reported higher perceived physical competence than the C group on postintervention scores. No gender differences were found. It was concluded that perceived competence and social acceptance were enhanced by participation in an MSI program.
Leah E. Robinson, Kara K. Palmer and Sean K. Meehan
This study examined the effects of three different treatment doses of a motor skill intervention (the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program [CHAMP]) on changes in preschoolers’ motor performance.
Onehundred and nine children were divided into one of four groups: control and three CHAMP dosage groups: T1, 660 min; T2, 720 min; or T3, 900 min. Motor performance was assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd Edition (TGMD-2). We used a 2 (time) × 4 (treatment) mixed-measures ANOVA to determine interaction and main effects. Significant interactions were decomposed using separate one-way between groups ANOVAs at each time point followed by Tukey’s post hoc tests.
Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (F 3, 100 = 16.79; p < .001). There were no differences across treatment groups before the intervention (F 3, 100 = .075, p < .90), but after the intervention the control group had significantly lower TMGD-2 scores compared with all three CHAMP intervention groups (F 3, 100 = 9.92, p < .001, all post hoc tests, p < .001). Posttreatment differences can be attributed to greater improvements in motor performance following the CHAMP intervention regardless of specific dosage.
Motor performance scores for all children who completed CHAMP significantly improved.
Emily Bremer and Meghann Lloyd
The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamentalmotor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom’s special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants’ individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher’s readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.
Megan A. Kirk and Ryan E. Rhodes
Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Major findings were summarized based on common subtopics of overall intervention effect, locomotor skill outcomes, object-control outcomes, and gender differences. Trials ranged from 8 to 24 weeks and offered 540–1700 min of instruction. The majority of trials (n = 9) significantly improved FMS of preschoolers with DD, with a large intervention effect (η2 = 0.57–0.85). This review supports the utility of interventions to improve FMS of preschoolers with DD. Future researchers are encouraged to include more robust designs, a theoretical framework, and involvement of parents and teachers in the delivery of the intervention.
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Ali Brian
testing whether an evidence-based gross motor skill intervention, SKIP ( Brian et al., 2017a , 2017b ), also improves executive function. Further, we examined differences by sex, as prior research has examined sex differences in both motor skill and executive function. In particular, research documents
Nadia C. Valentini and Mary E. Rudisill
Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of motivational climate on motor-skill development and perceived physical competence in kindergarten children with developmental delays. In Experiment 1, two intervention groups were exposed to environments with either high (mastery climate) or low autonomy for 12 weeks. Results showed that the mastery-climate group demonstrated significantly better locomotor performance and higher perceived physical competence postintervention than did the low-autonomy group, although both groups improved in locomotor and object-control skill performance. The second investigation extended the findings of the first by determining that the intervention effects were present 6 months later. In summary, the mastery-climate group showed positive changes in skill development and perceived physical competence, and this positive pattern of change was maintained over time.
Michelle Hamilton, Jacqueline Goodway and John Haubenstricker
The purpose was to investigate the effectiveness of parental involvement on the acquisition of object-control skills of preschool children who are at risk for developmental delay or academic failure. The experimental group (n = 15) participated in an 8-week motor skill intervention program consisting of two 45-min lessons per week delivered by the children’s parents. The control group (n = 12) participated in the regular motor skill program, which consisted of movement songs delivered by the parents. All children were pretested and posttested on the object-control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985). Both groups performed in the lower 20th percentile on the pretest. A 2 X 2 (Group X Test) ANOVA revealed that the experimental group improved significantly in the object-control subscale score from pretest to posttest, whereas the control group did not change. The results provide support for including parents in the instructional process of children who are at risk for developmental delay or academic failure.
Research Evidence-Based Practice and Research: A Challenge to the Development of Adapted Physical Activity Yeshayahu Shayke Hutzler * 7 2011 28 3 189 209 10.1123/apaq.28.3.189 Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers With Developmental Delay Megan A. Kirk