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Henrike Fischer, Daniel Weber, and Ralph Beneke

Mouth guards protect against orofacial and dental injuries in sports. However, special fitted dental splints have been claimed to improve strength and speed and, therefore, to enhance athletic performance.


To test the effects of a neuromuscular fitted dental splint in comparison with a habitual verticalizing splint and a no-splint condition on cycling sprint performance in the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT).


Twenty-three men (26.0 ± 2.0 y, 1.82 ± 0.06 m, 79.4 ± 7.7 kg) performed 3 WAnTs, 1 with the neuromuscular fitted splint, 1 with a habitual verticalized dental splint of the same height and material, and 1 under control conditions without any mouth guard, in randomized order separated by 1 wk.


No differences between any splint conditions were found in any aspect of WAnT performance (time to peak power, peak power, minimum power, power drop, and average power). Moderate to nearly perfect correlations between all splint conditions in all WAnT outcomes with coefficients of variation between 1.3% and 6.6% were found.


Irrespective of habitual verticalization or myocentric positioning, dental splints have no effects on any aspect of WAnT performance. Results are comparable to those of test–retest experiments.

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David C. Berry and M. Gene Miller

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Kelly Sarmiento, Dana Waltzman, Kelley Borradaile, Andrew Hurwitz, Kara Conroy, and Jaimie Grazi

domains of interest to the overall evaluation. These domains included (a) demographics; (b) background and experiences with contact sports; (c) perceived concussion risks and benefits of youth football; (d) experiences with tackling technique training and implementation; (e) experiences with mouth guard

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Erin E. Dierickx, Samantha E. Scarneo-Miller, and Douglas J. Casa

health behaviors such as osteoporosis prevention and colon cancer screening. The use of the PAPM has not been widely used in sports medicine. However, one study investigating the PAPM for mouth guard use in high school athletes found that the majority of those surveyed were not using or planning to use a

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Patricia M. Kelshaw, Trenton E. Gould, Mark Jesunathadas, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell, Elizabeth D. Edwards, and Shane V. Caswell

wear hard-shell helmets, shoulder pads, gloves, and mouth guards for protection. 7 By contrast, girls’ lacrosse does not permit body or stick contact and requires field players to wear only a mouth guard and eyewear for protection. 8 Girls’ lacrosse rules prohibit players’ lacrosse sticks from

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Jenna Ratka, Jamie Mansell, and Anne Russ

in rugby union . Int J Epidemiol . 2004 ; 34 : 113 – 118 . PubMed ID: 15561749 doi:10.1093/ije/dyh346 6. Barbic D , Pater J , Brison RJ . Comparison of mouth guard designs and concussion prevention in contact sports . Clin J Sport Med . 2005 ; 15 ( 5 ): 294 – 298 . PubMed ID: 16162986

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Eric Schussler, Ryan S. McCann, Nicholas Reilly, Thomas R. Campbell, and Jessica C. Martinez

of impacts. More recent impacts may have a larger effect on dynamic balance alterations than those occurring earlier in the season. Research has not confirmed a method to control for this change at this time. Mouth guard acceleration measures have improved yet concern still exists regarding the

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Igor H. Ito, Han C.G. Kemper, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Kyle R. Lynch, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Enio R. Ronque, and Rômulo A. Fernandes

noncontact style that wear mouth guards and light gloves ( 40 ), which decreases not only the risk of injuries ( 7 , 40 ) but also the osteogenic effect of exercise occasioned by the physical impact on the bone structure. Moreover, other studies have found that athletes of high-impact sports (rugby players

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Abigail M. Tyson, Stefan M. Duma, and Steven Rowson

sensors to be used in both helmeted and unhelmeted sports provide new opportunities to study these populations. 27 These sensors can be worn in a headband, skull cap, skin patch, and mouth guard, and cost approximately $100 to $200 each, according to the manufacturers. A unique challenge of unhelmeted

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Kathleen E. Bachynski

and mouth guard, as “necessary for the prevention of painful muscular aches, lacerations, abrasions, fractures, concussions, chronic headpains [ sic ], loss of teeth, ringing of the ears, and other disabling injuries resulting from participation in the game of HOCKEY.” 53 Yet before the 1970s, there