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Catriona A. Burdon, Matthew W. Hoon, Nathan A. Johnson, Phillip G. Chapman and Helen T. O’Connor


The purpose of this study was to establish whether sensory factors associated with cold-beverage ingestion exert an ergogenic effect on endurance performance independent of thermoregulatory or cardiovascular factors.


Ten males performed three trials involving 90 min of steady state cycling (SS; 62% VO2max) in the heat (32.1 ± 0.9 °C, 40 ± 2.4% relative humidity) followed by a 4 kJ/kg body mass time trial (TT). During SS, participants consumed an identical volume (260 ± 38g) of sports beverage (7.4% carbohydrate) every 15 min as either ice slushy (–1 °C; ICE), thermoneutral liquid (37 °C; CON), or thermoneutral liquid consumption with expectorated ice slushy mouthwash (WASH).


Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, and skin blood flow were not different between trials. Gastrointestinal (pill) temperature was lower in ICE (35.6 ± 2.7 °C) versus CON (37.4 ± 0.7 °C, p = .05). Heat storage tended to be lower with ICE during SS (14.7 ± 8.4W.m−2, p = .08) and higher during TT (68.9 ± 38.6W.m−2, p = .03) compared with CON (22.1 ± 6.6 and 31.4 ± 27.6W.m−2). ICE tended to lower the rating of perceived exertion (RPE, 12.9 ± 0.6, p = .05) and improve thermal comfort (TC, 4.5 ± 0.2; p = .01) vs. CON (13.8 ± 1.0 and 5.2 ± 0.2 respectively). WASH RPE (13.0 ± 0.8) and TC (4.8 ± 0.2) tended to be lower versus CON (p = .07 and p = .09 respectively). ICE improved performance (18:28 ± 1:03) compared with CON (20:24 ± 1:46) but not WASH (19:45 ± 1:43).


Improved performance with ICE ingestion likely resulted from the creation of a gastrointestinal heat sink, reducing SS heat storage. Although the benefits of cold-beverage consumption are more potent when there is ingestion, improved RPE, TC, and meaningful performance improvement with WASH supports an independent sensory effect of presenting a cold stimulus to the mouth.

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Edwin Chong, Kym J. Guelfi and Paul A. Fournier

This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

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Milou Beelen, Jort Berghuis, Ben Bonaparte, Sam B. Ballak, Asker E. Jeukendrup and Luc J.C van Loon

It has been reported previously that mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate-containing solution can improve cycling performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of such a carbohydrate mouth rinse on exercise performance during a simulated time trial in a more practical, postprandial setting. Fourteen male endurance-trained athletes were selected to perform 2 exercise tests in the morning after consuming a standardized breakfast. They performed an ~1-hr time trial on a cycle ergometer while rinsing their mouths with either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution (CHO) or water (PLA) after every 12.5% of the set amount of work. Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed after every 25% of the set amount of work, and power output and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout the test. Performance time did not differ between treatments and averaged 68.14 ± 1.14 and 67.52 ± 1.00 min in CHO and PLA, respectively (p = .57). In accordance, average power output (265 ± 5 vs. 266 ± 5 W, p = .58), heart rate (169 ± 2 vs. 168 ± 2 beats/min, p = .43), and RPE (16.4 ± 0.3 vs. 16.7 ± 0.3 W, p = .26) did not differ between treatments. Furthermore, after dividing the trial into 8s, no differences in power output, heart rate, or perceived exertion were observed over time between treatments. Carbohydrate mouth rinsing does not improve time-trial performance when exercise is performed in a practical, postprandial setting.

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

Day 2, which was checked by a dietitian; to avoid caffeine and alcohol for 12 and 24 hr, respectively, prior to each test day; and to refrain from using any antibacterial mouthwash/toothpaste and tongue scraping during each supplementation day ( Govoni et al., 2008 ). Supplement logs and training

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Ozcan Esen, Ceri Nicholas, Mike Morris and Stephen J. Bailey

, and any anti-inflammatory drugs. Participants avoided antibacterial mouthwash throughout the testing period, given that it eradicates oral nitrate-reducing bacteria. 25 The swimmers who participated in this study were in the middle stage of the general preparation training phase, and their training

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Joseph A. McQuillan, Julia R. Casadio, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen and Andrew E. Kilding

beetroot juice. Participants were instructed to avoid spitting, chewing gum, or using antibacterial mouthwash during the supplementation interventions, as these actions are associated with a lowering of plasma [ NO 2 − ]. 10 Blood Collection On arrival at the laboratory, participants were asked to sit

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Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith

. Appetite, 80, 212 – 219 . PubMed ID: 24858834 doi:10.1016/j.appet.2014.05.020 Whitham , M. , & McKinney , J. ( 2007 ). Effect of a carbohydrate mouthwash on running time-trial performance . Journal of Sports Science, 25 ( 12 ), 1385 – 1392 . doi:10.1080/02640410601113676

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Pablo Jodra, Raúl Domínguez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Pablo Veiga-Herreros and Stephen J. Bailey

foodstuffs rich in caffeine to avoid. Finally, subjects were instructed to avoid brushing their teeth on the morning of testing and the use of antibacterial mouthwash, which would alter the oral microbiota and interfere with NO 3 − reduction, from 1 week prior to the first laboratory visit and for the

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

heat . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2010 ; 42 ( 4 ): 717 – 725 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181bf257a 19952832 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181bf257a 15. Burdon CA , Hoon MW , Johnson NA , Chapman PG , O’Connor HT . The effect of ice slushy ingestion and mouthwash on thermoregulation and endurance

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Emma M. Crum, Matthew J. Barnes and Stephen R. Stannard

markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash . Nitric Oxide, 19 ( 4 ), 333 – 337 . PubMed ID: 18793740 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2008.08.003 10.1016/j.niox.2008.08.003 Ignarro , L.J. , Byrns , R.E. , Sumi , D. , de Nigris , F. , & Napoli , C. ( 2006 ). Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide