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Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola and Jing Wang

skills (FMS; locomotor and object control skills) and healthy movement behaviors, such as engaging in regular physical activities and sitting less ( 1 ). FMS are basic movement patterns that are considered “building blocks” to be later adapted and refined to specific movement contexts and sports ( 7

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E. Michael Loovis

Toy preference and associated gross and fine motor movements of preschool orthopedically handicapped children were evaluated in a free-play situation. Fifteen children between 3 and 5 years of age and representing two separate classes served as subjects. The study was conducted for 7 weeks in the subjects’ classroom. Sessions were scheduled 2 times per week in each class, each lasting 1 hour. Twenty toys were evaluated using a modified version of the procedure developed by the University of Kansas’ Living Environments Group. Measurement of movement behavior associated with toy play involved application of a movement glossary developed by the experimenter. A Wilcoxon two-sample rank test revealed no significant differences for either gender, age, or ambulation (ambulatory versus nonambulatory) in relation to toy preference or nature of movement demonstrated. Analysis revealed that subjects spent considerable time using toys in a manner which did not correspond to their design. It was recommended that orthopedically handicapped children might benefit from learning how to play under the direction of a parent, teacher, or similar individual.

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John J. Reilly, Adrienne R. Hughes, Xanne Janssen, Kathryn R. Hesketh, Sonia Livingstone, Catherine Hill, Ruth Kipping, Catherine E. Draper, Anthony D. Okely and Anne Martin

other “24-hour movement behaviors 2 , 8 ” (sedentary behavior including screen time, sleep, and time spent in standing). In a fixed 24-hour day, the time spent in one of these behaviors must inevitably influence the others, and by school entry, physical activity declines with age and is displaced by

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Zhiguang Zhang, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely, Xiaoqi Feng and Rute Santos

, retrospectively registered). Measure Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in ECEC Centers Movement behaviors during ECEC attendance time were assessed with activPAL accelerometers over a week. The activPAL is a valid instrument to assess young children’s sedentary behavior (sitting), standing, and physical

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Walter E. Davis and Allen W. Burton

A new approach to task analysis is presented based upon an ecological theory of perception and current motor development and control theories. The ecological task analysis (ETA) approach stands in sharp contrast to more traditional approaches and offers procedures equally applicable to instruction and assessment of movement performance as well as to applied research. The strengths of the ETA approach lie in (a) its grounding in current motor development and control theories, (b) its linking of the task requirements, environmental conditions, and performer characteristics, (c) its application of a functional and dynamic approach to instruction and assessment, and (d) its integration of instruction and assessment procedures. Following a discussion of the traditional approach and ecological theory, four concepts are presented that emanate from Gibson’s theory of affordances. From these concepts ETA procedures are derived. Applied research questions relating to task analysis are also implied from the ecological approach and are presented in the final section.

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Arne Nieuwenhuys, J. Rob Pijpers, Raôul R.D. Oudejans and Frank C. Bakker

The object of the current study was to investigate anxiety-induced changes in movement and gaze behavior in novices on a climbing wall. Identical traverses were situated at high and low levels on a climbing wall to manipulate anxiety. In line with earlier studies, climbing times and movement times increased under anxiety. These changes were accompanied by similar changes in total and average fixation duration and the number of fixations, which were primarily aimed at the holds used for climbing. In combination with these findings, a decrease in search rate provided evidence for a decrease in processing efficiency as anxiety increased.

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Mark S. Tremblay

attentiveness to a life-course approach and focus on the early years of life had not been embraced globally when it comes to movement behaviors. Indeed, the WHO Global Recommendation on Physical Activity for Health 15 in 2010 did not speak to the early years (aged 0–5 y) nor did the 2008 US Physical Activity

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Philip von Rosen and Maria Hagströmer

Across a 24-hour day, time is disproportionately spent in different movement behaviors, such as sleep, sedentary, or active behaviors, influencing important health outcomes such as self-rated health. 1 – 3 The ability to perform daily activities without limitations, such as time spent in

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Pooja S. Tandon, Tyler Sasser, Erin S. Gonzalez, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Dimitri A. Christakis and Mark A. Stein

including the fact that they may have ADHD themselves. 30 Previous studies using nationally representative samples from 2003 to 2007 have documented poor obesity–related health behaviors in children with ADHD. 5 , 8 We sought to describe obesity-related movement behaviors in a more recently obtained

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Alessandra Prioreschi and Lisa K. Micklesfield

Recently, new guidelines for the combination of movement behaviors (sleep, sedentary time, and physical activity) that make up a 24-hour day have been developed for the early years (0–5 y) in Australia and Canada. 1 , 2 Shortly thereafter, South Africa also launched movement guidelines for the