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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

both exercise groups compared with control conditions, suggesting that physiological arousal rather than movement complexity promote memory consolidation. The present experiments were conducted to evaluate the temporal relation between exercise and task training and the role of physical activity

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Kathye E. Light, Marie A. Reilly, Andrea L. Behrman and Waneen W. Spirduso

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of practice on simple reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), and response consistency for two arm-reaching tasks of graded complexity in younger and older adults. Forty subjects, 20 younger adults (age range = 20–29 years) and 20 older adults (age range = 60–82 years), were randomly subdivided into practice and control groups. All subjects were pretested on each arm-reaching movement on Day 1. The practice groups practiced each task for 160 trials over 2 consecutive days while the control groups practiced a memory task and answered a health survey. All subjects were posttested on Day 3. The major finding was that practice reduced the simple RTs of older persons to the level of younger persons. MTs for both practice age groups were reduced, but the age differences in MT performance were maintained.

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Nicholas Stergiou, Jenny A. Kent and Denise McGrath

An optimal level of variability enables us to interact adaptively and safely to a continuously changing environment, where often our movements must be adjusted in a matter of milliseconds. A large body of research exists that demonstrates natural variability in healthy gait (along with variability in other, healthy biological signals such as heart rate) and a loss of this variability in aging and injury, as well as in a variety of neurodegenerative and physiological disorders. We submit that this field of research is now in pressing need of an innovative “next step” that goes beyond the many descriptive studies that characterize levels of variability in various patient populations. We need to devise novel therapies that will harness the existing knowledge on biological variability and create new possibilities for those in the grip of disease. We also propose that the nature of the specific physiological limitation present in the neuromuscular apparatus may be less important in the physiological complexity framework than the control mechanisms adopted by the older individual in the coordination of the available degrees of freedom. The theoretical underpinnings of this framework suggest that interventions designed to restore healthy system dynamics may optimize functional improvements in older adults. We submit that interventions based on the restoration of optimal variability and movement complexity could potentially be applied across a range of diseases or dysfunctions as it addresses the adaptability and coordination of available degrees of freedom, regardless of the internal constraints of the individual.

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Exercise and Movement Complexity on Young Adults’ Psychomotor Learning Phillip D. Tomporowski * Daniel M. Pendleton * 1 10 2018 40 5 240 248 10.1123/jsep.2017-0289 jsep.2017-0289 In the Zone: An Exploration of Personal Characteristics Underlying Affective Responses to Heavy Exercise Leighton Jones

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Marzie Balali, Shahab Parvinpour and Mohsen Shafizadeh

-hand catching: one for reaching and one for catching. They also showed that one more synergy, retaining, emerged after the intervention in the transfer test. However, such changes in movement complexity are not visible in the traditional methods of movement assessment. Traditionally, typical development in the

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Anne Sofie B. Malling, Bo M. Morberg, Lene Wermuth, Ole Gredal, Per Bech and Bente R. Jensen

standardized testing state with all measurements performed with the participant in an ON-state. The vast majority of the participants completed the tasks within one ON-cycle. Three motor tasks focused on gross motor skills in the lower extremities. The three tasks involved different levels of movement

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Masafumi Terada, Megan Beard, Sara Carey, Kate Pfile, Brian Pietrosimone, Elizabeth Rullestad, Heather Whitaker and Phillip Gribble

Athletic Training, 47 ( 2 ), 136 – 142 . PubMed ID: 22488278 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-47.2.136 10.4085/1062-6050-47.2.136 Yamagata , M. , Ikezoe , T. , Kamiya , M. , Masaki , M. , & Ichihashi , N. ( 2017 ). Correlation between movement complexity during static standing and balance function in

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James R. Chagdes, Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, Laura J. Claxton and Jeffrey M. Haddad

control of a multiple degrees of freedom system ( Claxton et al., 2014 ), and movement complexity associated with the maturation of sensory-motor processes ( Shafer, Newell, Lewis, & Bodfish, 2017 ). In this study, we present a simple rating system (low risk if <5% error, moderate risk if 5–10% error, and

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Chelsee A. Shortt, Collin A. Webster, Richard J. Keegan, Cate A. Egan and Ali S. Brian

regularly in one form of physical activity which does not always require extensive movement complexity” (Delphi I, Participant 12), “this [fundamental motor skill] is a building block that enables people to access a greater number of ‘organised’ physical activities but isn’t necessarily the determining

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Cameron T. Gibbons, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Aaron D. Likens

70 times per day ( Dall & Kerr, 2010 ) and requires coordination of a large number of joints and muscles across the entire body. Despite the movement complexity, people seem to experience no difficulty performing the STS task across a wide variety of contexts. The difficulty lies in the researcher