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Luciana Zuest

rare to identify programs aiming at helping girls discover meaningful and enjoyable movement experiences. That is, PA that is free from pressure to perform or meet certain standards of frequency, intensity, and duration. Whitehead and Biddle ( 2008 ), discussed the criteria to which “less active” girls

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Virginie Nicaise, David Kahan, Karen Reuben and James F. Sallis

This study investigated the impact of renovation and redesign of a university preschool’s outdoor space on children’s sedentary behavior, light activity, and moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity (MVPA) during unstructured recess. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and direct observation in two independent samples of 50 (baseline) and 57 (postintervention) children (M age=4.4 yrs ± 0.5). Controlling for gender, age, BMI and recess length, observational data, but not accelerometry, revealed a significant decrease in intervals spent sedentary (-26.5%) and increases in light physical activity (+11.6%) and MVPA (+14.9%). Higher levels of MVPA were associated with specific environmental changes (new looping cycle path, OR = 2.18; increased playground open space, OR = 7.62; and new grass hill, OR = 3.27). Decreased sedentary behavior and increased light activity and MVPA may be realized with environmental changes that promote continuous and novel movement experiences in more expansive spaces.

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Stewart G. Trost, Bronwyn Fees and David Dzewaltowski


This study evaluated the effect of a “move and learn” curriculum on physical activity (PA) in 3- to 5-year-olds attending a half-day preschool program.


Classrooms were randomized to receive an 8-week move and learn program or complete their usual curriculum. In intervention classes, opportunities for PA were integrated into all aspects of the preschool curriculum, including math, science, language arts, and nutrition education. Changes in PA were measured objectively using accelerometry and direct observation.


At the completion of the 8-week intervention, children completing the move and learn curriculum exhibited significantly higher levels of classroom moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children completing their usual curriculum. Significant differences were also noted for classroom VPA over the final 2 weeks.


The results suggest that integrating movement experiences into an existing early childhood curriculum is feasible and a potentially effective strategy for promoting PA in preschool children.

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Frances E. Cleland

Young children’s (N = 50) divergent movement ability (DMA), which is one aspect of critical thinking in physical education, was examined in this study. Treatment Group A received 20 physical education lessons based on skill themes using indirect teaching styles (n = 16). Twenty lessons based on low-organized games content using direct teaching styles were provided to Treatment Group B (n = 17). No treatment was provided to the control subjects in Group C (n = 17). No significant DMA pretest differences were determined, and the independent variables (i.e., gender, intelligence, creativity, and background of movement experience) examined were not significantly related to subjects’ pretest DMA. A two-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe test revealed that Group A’s posttest DMA scores were significantly higher than those for either Group B or Group C, F(2, 47) = 11.7, p < .0001. Young children’s ability to generate different movement patterns (i.e., DMA), therefore, was significantly improved in response to employing critical thinking strategies in physical education.

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Daniel B. Robinson, Lynn Randall and Joe Barrett

movement within the world. The quantity and quality of movement experiences can thus contribute to a person realizing her or his potential and living a full and rich life. The concept of physical literacy essentially justifies why PE should be considered an important part of all children’s lives, not an

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Noora J. Ronkainen, Michael McDougall, Olli Tikkanen, Niels Feddersen and Richard Tahtinen

, including Kretchmar ( 2000 ) and Loland ( 2006 ), have argued for the centrality of meaning in analyzing movement experiences and social justifications of physical education and sport. Some scholars have also drawn on existential philosophical ideas to discern dimensions of meaning and underpinning values

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Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley and Patrice Aubertin

holistically, PL is a multidimensional construct that transcends fundamental motor skills to include cognitive, emotional, and social elements that collectively influence movement experiences across the course of life ( Whitehead, 2010 ). A recent series of systematic reviews by Edwards et al. ( 2017 , 2018

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Ivan A. Trujillo-Priego, Judy Zhou, Inge F. Werner, Weiyang Deng and Beth A. Smith

Esther Thelen and colleagues eloquently described development in the context of Dynamic Systems Theory to suggest that movement experience in infancy is an important prerequisite for the acquisition of motor skills ( Thelen, 1995 ; Thelen & Smith, 1994 ). Presumably, higher amounts of free

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Eoin Everard, Mark Lyons and Andrew J. Harrison

trunk displacement) are similar. 4 This experience with analyzing movement may have helped the raters with scoring the LESS compared with someone without prior movement experience. 16 FMS reliability studies reported that those with experience in movement mechanics had greater reliability compared

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott

therapeutic handling (handling developed through clinical practice), environmental setup, task selection, and the use of verbal cues to potentiate a typical movement experience ( Vaughan-Graham & Cott, 2016 ). Thus, the Bobath clinician is particularly interested in a person’s sensory experience of movement