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Tan Leng Goh and Kristin Scrabis-Fletcher

implement components of CSPAP in schools. Movement integration (MI) is a type of PA opportunity that can be incorporated in the classroom during the school day as part of CSPAP. MI is defined as integrating and providing physical movement activities of any intensity level and short duration (i.e., ∼10 min

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Rosemarie Martin and Elaine Murtagh

Background:

A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Active Classrooms intervention, which integrates movement into academic lessons, on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) of primary school children during class-time and throughout the school day.

Methods:

Ten classroom teachers and their students aged 8 to 12 years were recruited and randomized into the Active Classrooms intervention group (n = 131students, n = 5teachers) or a delayed-treatment controlled group (n = 117students, n = 5teachers). The intervention group participated in active academic lessons taught by the classroom teacher over an 8 week period. Accelerometers were used to gather physical activity data at baseline, postintervention and at 4 months follow-up. Teachers completed a questionnaire to evaluate the program.

Results:

A significant difference for change in daily class time MVPA levels was identified between the treatment (n = 95) and control (n = 91) groups from pre- to postintervention (P < .001) and this difference was maintained at follow-up (P < .001). No significant difference emerged between the treatment and control groups for change in school day MVPA levels from pre- to postintervention (P = .52) or follow-up (P = .09). Teachers reported that they were highly satisfied with the program.

Conclusions:

Movement integration has the potential to improve physical activity levels of primary school children in the classroom.

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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner

Background: Evidence of the positive effects of school physical activity (PA) interventions, including classroom-based PA (CBPA), is rapidly growing. However, few studies examine how variations in scheduled PA opportunities and teacher-implemented CBPA affect students’ PA outcomes. Methods: Teachers at 5 elementary schools attended training on how to implement CBPA. Data on school-day PA opportunities [physical education (PE), recess, and CBPA] were obtained via calendar and teacher-recorded CBPA logs. Daily step counts were measured via accelerometry in 1346 students across 65 classrooms in first through fifth grades. Results: PE, recess, and CBPA contributed significantly to students’ daily steps. Males accrued more steps than females over the school day, during PE, and during recess. No gender disparity was seen in the amount of additional steps accrued during CBPA. Overall step counts were lower among fifth-grade students versus first-grade students, but CBPA attenuated this difference such that grade-level differences were not significant in fifth-grade students who received CBPA. Conclusions: Gender disparities in step totals were present on PE and recess days, but not on CBPA days. CBPA appears to provide equal PA benefits for both genders and to potentially minimize the decline in PA among older students.

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Katie L. Hodgin, Lauren von Klinggraeff, Brian Dauenhauer, Jaimie M. McMullen, Ann Pulling Kuhn, Peter Stoepker and Russell L. Carson

how data use may improve PA in schools, the present study aimed to explore the impact of a brief data-sharing intervention with classroom teachers on teacher-directed movement integration and students’ PA and sedentary behavior. The primary research questions explored were: (1) After a data

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Niamh Reilly, Gavin P. Lawrence, Thomas Mottram and Michael Khan

The perceptual-motor impairments of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are attributed to central (e.g., neurophysiology deficits that affect the retrieval or initiation of motor programs) and peripheral (e.g., anatomical deficits relating to issues with inertia of limb mechanics and muscle organization) processes. However, recent research suggests that central deficits do not affect the integration between movements. We investigate the impact of central and peripheral DS deficits on movement integration by examining the planning and execution of multiple-target multiple-arm movements. Individuals with DS, typically developing (TD), and individuals with an undifferentiated intellectual disability (UID) completed five aiming tasks: a one target; a one-arm, two-target extension; a two-arm, two-target extension (movement one was performed with one arm and movement two performed with the other); a one-arm, two-target reversal; and a two-arm, two-target reversal. Movement times (MTs) to the first target were longer in the two-target tasks compared with the one-target task. For the one-arm, two-target reversal task, this effect emerged only in individuals with DS. These results indicate that individuals with DS use central processing for movement integration similarly to their TD and UID counterparts but cannot exploit peripheral-level integration to enhance integration in one-arm reversal tasks.

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Robert R.A. van Doorn

The execution of a fast aimed movement takes less time when it is performed in isolation than when it is followed by a movement to a second target. The most recent explanation of this so-called one-target advantage (OTA) is the movement integration hypothesis. The first movement is slowed down to enable a neuromuscular integration of the first and second movements so that a presumably smooth transition between the two movements can take place. The present study shows that the time increase underlying the OTA does not happen just before the transition takes place, but is located in the initial part of the first movement element of the two-tap sequence. It is discussed how such a temporal occurrence relates to the transition of the first movement to the second.

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Movement Integration Intervention on the Physical Activity Levels of Primary School Children Rosemarie Martin * Elaine Murtagh * 4 2017 14 4 290 300 10.1123/jpah.2016-0358 A Physical Activity Intervention Program in School is Also Accompanied by Higher Leisure-Time Physical Activity: A Prospective

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Shannon C. Mulhearn, Pamela Hodges Kulinna and Collin Webster

designs and findings (e.g., studies without effect sizes; Arksey & O’Malley, 2003 ). Research literature was searched to identify educational stakeholder perceptions of school-based PA programming with an emphasis on CSPAPs; “movement integration” was also used as a term because it is also used in

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Riley Galloway, Robert Booker and Scott Owens

education, and classroom movement integration [MI] opportunities), by race and sex. Methods School Selection Following the approval of the university institutional review board, a complete list of public elementary schools from seven counties in northern Mississippi was obtained from the Mississippi

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Patrick Abi Nader, Evan Hilberg, John M. Schuna, Deborah H. John and Katherine B. Gunter

.1177/1090198110367877 29. Goh TL , Hannon JC , Newton M , Webster C , Podlog L , Pillow W . “I’ll Squeeze It In”: transforming preservice classroom teachers’ perceptions toward movement integration in schools . Action Teach Educ . 2013 ; 35 ( 4 ): 286 – 300 . doi:10.1080/01626620.2013.827600 10