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J. Greg Anson, Brian l. Hyland, Rolf Kötter and Jeffery R. Wickens

A movement task was used to investigate the effects of precued variables on reaction time. The task involved rapid rotation of a hand-held manipulandum to target locations and required either pronation or supination of the forearm through short or long extent. The effects on reaction time of precues signalling target direction, extent, or a combination of direction and extent, were measured. The longest reaction times occurred when no information about direction or extent was provided in the precue (all parameters uncertain). Complete prior specification of target position produced the shortest reaction times. Specification of direction when extent was uncertain produced a significantly larger reduction in reaction time than specification of extent when direction was uncertain. Prior specification of extent also produced a small but significant reduction in reaction time relative to the condition in which direction and extent were specified in a mutually conditional manner. The results are discussed in relation to parameter precuing and motor programming, in which the direction is programmed by the pre-selection of neurons representing the muscles to be used in the task while programming of extent is represented by their level of activity during task performance.

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Stacey L. DeJong, Rebecca L. Birkenmeier and Catherine E. Lang

In animal models, hundreds of repetitions of upper extremity (UE) task practice promote neural adaptation and functional gain. Recently, we demonstrated improved UE function following a similar intervention for people after stroke. In this secondary analysis, computerized measures of UE task performance were used to identify movement parameters that changed as function improved. Ten people with chronic poststroke hemiparesis participated in high-repetition UE task-specific training 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, we assessed UE function with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and evaluated motor performance using computerized motion capture during a reach-grasp-transport-release task. Movement parameters included the duration of each movement phase, trunk excursion, peak aperture, aperture path ratio, and peak grip force. Group results showed an improvement in ARAT scores (p = .003). Although each individual changed significantly on at least one movement parameter, across the group there were no changes in any movement parameter that reached or approached significance. Changes on the ARAT were not closely related to changes in movement parameters. Since aspects of motor performance that contribute to functional change vary across individuals, an individualized approach to upper extremity motion analysis appears warranted.

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Claudia Armbrüster and Will Spijkers

In three experiments the influence of different consecutive movements on an initial reaching and prehension movement was examined. These so-called after-grasp movements, defined as movements following a prehension movement towards an object, were lifting and raising the object, throwing the object in a bin, and positioning it accurately on a target location. Three different groups of participants (N 1 = 8, N 2 = 10, N 3 = 10) accomplished the lifting and one of the three other after-grasp movements each with three different object sizes and with the left and the right hand. In total, each participant executed 240 trials. Fourteen movement parameter values were examined to analyze the effects of the after-grasp movements on the initial reach and grasp movement. The results showed that movement parameter values of the initial reach and grasp movement were affected differently depending on the type of consecutive movement. In particular, the deceleration phase prior to object contact differed between movement types.

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Ziemowit Bańkosz and Sławomir Winiarski

, Zhang, & Hao, 2007 ; Hsu, 2010 ; Zhang, Liu, Hu, & Liu, 2014 ). Assessments of only some movement parameters for players have been published in a few studies ( Iino & Kojima, 2009 , 2011 ; Lees, 2003 ; Sheppard & Li, 2007 ; Tsai et al., 2010 ; Zhang & Liu, 1998 ; Zhang & Shi, 2000 ). The

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Ran Zheng, Ilana D. Naiman, Jessica Skultety, Steven R. Passmore, Jim Lyons and Cheryl M. Glazebrook

where the only task is to identify the go stimulus and initiate the motor commands ( Christina & Rose, 1985 ). For a choice reaction time task, the number and type of movement parameters that still need to be specified will result in longer PMTs ( Hasbroucq, Possamaï, Bonnet, & Vidal, 1999 ). With

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Francesco Campa, Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi and Stefania Toselli

, whereas rugby is featured by runs, blocks, passes, and throws involving both lower and upper limbs. As a result, the wide range of training methods and the variety of surfaces on which athletes compete imply different effects on physical and movement parameters. 2 High-level athletes possess an

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

body to adapt a specific set of movement parameters. Similar to previous research, we used lower extremity muscle activation patterns and metabolic activity to evaluate the player–surface interaction. 4 , 7 In a sport performance scenario where a greater portion of energy from the athlete to the

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Thomas A. Stoffregen

movement parameters that are used to generate or achieve task-specific informational states in the global array. Kinesiology is an ideal incubator for implementation of this research agenda. Many students of motor control attempt to uncover fundamental control laws in complex perceptual-motor situations (e

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Maria K. Talarico, Robert C. Lynall, Timothy C. Mauntel, Erin B. Wasserman, Darin A. Padua and Jason P. Mihalik

-leg squat, should undergo similar investigations to determine if similar movement parameters influence dynamic postural control. Interaction between squat speed and depth was not investigated as this was not a main research question for this study. This interaction, though, may impart useful clinical

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Greg Wood, Samuel J. Vine, Johnny Parr and Mark R. Wilson

movement parameters (force, direction, and velocity) immediately before an aiming skill is performed ( Vickers, 1996 , 2007 ). As task complexity and preprogramming demands increase, so does the QE period ( Klostermann, Kredel, & Hossner, 2013 ; Sun, Zhang, Vine, & Wilson, 2016 ; Williams, Singer